Anna Anund


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Annas forskningsresultat


SleepNoise

It is well known that sleepiness is an important contributor to crashes. The drivers are influenced by circadian low, hours slept or being awake. There is also reason to believe that variations in interior road noise may be a contributing factor. Up...

Driving restrictions post-stroke

Objective: Suffering a stroke might lead to permanent cognitive and/or physical impairment. It has been shown that these impairments could have an impact on an individual's fitness to drive. In Sweden, as in many other countries, there are...

Local changes in the wake electroencephalogram precedes lane departures

The objective of this exploratory study is to investigate if lane departures are associated with local sleep, measured via source-localized electroencephalography (EEG) theta power in the 5-9 Hz frequency range. Thirty participants drove in an...

Hastigheter på kommunala gator i tätort

Syftet med föreliggande studie är att följa upp förändringar av trafikanternas hastighetsval och hastighetsefterlevnad på det kommunala huvudvägnätet i tätort. År 2012 var startår för mätserien och under 2016 genomfördes den fjärde uppföljande...

Driver monitoring

För att förhindra bilolyckor är det viktigt att förstå bidragande faktorer kopplade till föraren. Det övergripande målet för VDM-projektet har varit att öka förståelsen för två av dessa faktorer, sömnighet och kognitiv distraktion. Målet med...

Effectiveness and acceptability of milled rumble strips on rural two-lane roads in Sweden

Purpose: The study sought to estimate the effects of centreline milled rumble strips on rural two-lane roads in Sweden in a wide perspective. Traffic safety effects (i.e., fewer crashes and injuries), driver experience, and driver opinions of...

Split-shift work in relation to stress, health and psychosocial work factors among bus...

BACKGROUND: Shift work has been associated with poor health, sleep and fatigue problems and low satisfaction with working hours. However, one type of shift working, namely split shifts, have received little attention.OBJECTIVE: This study examined...

A comprehensive conceptual framework for road safety strategies

Road safety strategies (generally called Strategic Highway Safety Plans in the USA) provide essential guidance for actions to improve road safety, but often lack a conceptual framework that is comprehensive, systems theory based, and underpinned by...

Hastigheter på kommunala gator i tätort

Studien redovisar den tredje mätningen som följer upp förändringar av trafikanternas hastighetsval och hastighetsefterlevnad på det kommunala huvudvägnätet i tätort. Resultaten visar att de genomsnittliga reshastigheterna ligger under gällande...

Bus drivers working hours and the relationship to driver fatigue

Bus drivers often have irregular working hours like split shifts and their work involve high levels of stress. These factors can lead to severe sleepiness and dangerous driving. The purpose of this study is to highlight how split shifts affect...

Säker framkomlighet

Föreliggande rapport redovisar övergripande resultat av fyra olika åtgärder som implementerats inomTrafikverkets projekt ”Säker framkomlighet” vilket haft som syfte att förbättra framkomlighet ochtrafiksäkerhet på främst befintliga tvåfältsvägar med...

Factors associated with self-reported driver sleepiness and incidents in city bus drivers

Driver fatigue has received increased attention during recent years and is now considered to be a major contributor to approximately 15-30% of all crashes. However, little is known about fatigue in city bus drivers. It is hypothesized that city bus...

Självförklarande gator

Det övergripande syftet med denna studie har varit att öka förståelsen kring begreppet självförklarande gata i tätort genom att studera sambandet mellan faktiska hastigheter på en viss plats, den hastighetsgräns som råder där och trafikmiljöns...

A comparison of driver sleepiness in the simulator and on the real road

For safety reasons as well as for experimental control, driver sleepiness experiments are often run in simulators. The aim of this study is to compare the development of driver sleepiness in an advanced driving simulator experiment with real road...

Night-time scenarios in simulators

The study in this publication investigates the need and potential for night-time scenarios in driving simulators, determines how such night-time scenarios could be reproduced and identifies the objects most important to reproduce. Although on...

An on-road study of sleepiness in split shifts among city bus drivers

Bus drivers often work irregular hours or split shifts and their work involves high levels of stress. These factors can lead to severe sleepiness and dangerous driving. This study examined how split shift working affects sleepiness and performance...

Stakeholders’ opinions on a future in-vehicle alcohol detection system for prevention of...

Introduction: There is a common understanding that driving under the influence of alcohol is associated with higher risk of being involved in crashes with injuries and possible fatalities as the outcome. Various countermeasures have therefore from...

A review of models relevant to road safety

It is estimated that more than 1.2 million people die worldwide as a result of road traffic crashes and some 50 million are injured per annum. At present some Western countries' road safety strategies and countermeasures claim to have developed into...

Motåtgärder mot förartrötthet i olika trafikslag

Det övergripande syftet med detta arbete har varit att samla den kunskap som finns kring hur man på bästa sätt kan motverka att förartrötthet uppstår hos förare i de olika transportslagen väg, järnväg, sjö och i luften. Insamlad kunskap har använts...

Utvärderingsmodell för ITS-baserade system vid hållplats

Det finns nya produkter av typen varningssystem som syftar till att öka säkerhet och trygghet för oskyddade trafikanter. De har ofta tagits fram med särskilt fokus på barn. Produktutvecklarna har utvärderat sina produkter med positiva resultat och...

Hastigheter på kommunala gator i tätort

Syftet med föreliggande studie är att följa upp förändringar av trafikanternas hastighetsval och hastighetsefterlevnad på det kommunala huvudvägnätet i tätort. År 2012 var startår för mätserien och under 2014 genomfördes den andra uppföljande...

Video-based observer rated sleepiness versus self-reported subjective sleepiness in real...

Observer-rated sleepiness (ORS) based on video recordings of the driver’s face is often used when analysing naturalistic driving data. The aim of this study is to investigate if ORS ratings agree with subjective self-reported sleepiness (SRS).Forty...

Do repeated rumble strip hits improve driver alertness?

Driving while sleepy is associated with increased crash risk. Rumble strips are designed to alert a sleepy or inattentive driver when they deviate outside their driving lane. The current study sought to examine the effects of repeated rumble strip...

The effect of low-frequency road noise on driver sleepiness and performance

The aim of this moving base driving simulator study with 19 drivers participating in a random order day and night time, was to evaluate the effect of low-frequency road noise on driver sleepiness and performance, including both long-term and...

Dynamic bus lanes in Sweden – a pre-study

Dynamic bus lanes are only dedicated for buses when and where the buses need them, and otherwise open for all vehicles to use. This report presents the results from a pre-study, investigating the potential that dynamic bus lanes could have as a...

Nykterhetsstödjande system

Det finns en klar bild av att förare som kör under påverkan av alkohol löper en ökad risk att bidra till olyckor där människor skadas svårt och dödas. Föreliggande projekt har haft som syfte att med hjälp av diskussioner i fokusgrupper (8 stycken)...

Hastigheter på kommunala gator i tätort

Syftet med föreliggande studie är dels att utveckla en metod för att följa upp förändringar av trafikanternas hastigheter på det kommunala huvudvägnätet i tätort, dels att redovisa resultaten av trafikanternas hastighetsnivåer och...

Bussförares arbetstider kopplat till trötthet

Bussförare i kollektivtrafiken har ofta oregelbundna arbetstider och en arbetssituation som kan innebära hög stress. Dessa faktorer kan leda till allvarlig trötthet. Syftet med denna studie är att belysa hur arbetstiden påverkar sömn, stress,...

Real driving at night

Only limited information is available on how driving performance relates to physiological and subjective sleepiness on real roads. This relation was the focus of the present study. 33 volunteers drove for 90. min on a rural road during the afternoon...

System theory and safety models in Swedish, UK, Dutch and Australian road safety...

Road safety strategies represent interventions on a complex social technical system level. An understanding of a theoretical basis and description is required for strategies to be structured and developed. Road safety strategies are described as...

Räfflor

Längsgående räfflor i vägbanan är ett sätt att påkalla förares uppmärksamhet när de ofrivilligt är på väg att lämna körfältet. Hur räfflorna kan se ut varierar. Dels finns de mer konventionella intermittenta räfflorna som används i Sverige. Dessa...

Sleep-related eye symptoms and their potential for identifying driver sleepiness

The majority of individuals appear to have insight into their own sleepiness, but there is some evidence that this does not hold true for all, for example treated patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Identification of sleep-related symptoms may...

Subjective sleepiness is a sensitive indicator of insufficient sleep and impaired waking...

The main consequence of insufficient sleep is sleepiness. While measures of sleep latency, continuous encephalographical/electro-oculographical (EEG/EOG) recording and performance tests are useful indicators of sleepiness in the laboratory and...

Usability of the SAFEWAY2SCHOOL system in children with cognitive disabilities

SAFEWAY2SCHOOL is a programme based on several systems for the enhancement of school transportation safety for children. The aim of the study was to explore whether children with cognitive disabilities will notice, realise, understand, trust and...

Säker framkomlighet

Idén med räffling, både vägrensräffling och mitträffling, är att undvika olyckor genom att "väcka/larma" förare som ofrivilligt är på väg att lämna sitt körfält på grund av t.ex. distraktion eller trötthet. Utländska studier indikerar att räfflorna...

Simulator validation with respect to driver sleepiness and subjective experiences

In the previous project SleepEYE, which aimed at developing tools for driver sleepiness detection, two experiments were carried out. In the first experiment, 18 drivers conducted two driving sessions on a motorway: one during daytime (alert) and one...

Uttröttning

Årligen skadas och dödas människor i trafiken i olyckor då förare kör alltför sömniga. Regelverket reglerar körning i trött tillstånd på lite olika sätt. Det kan diskuteras om befintligt regelverk är tillräckligt tydligt för att leda till straff men...

Investigation of driver sleepiness in FOT data

Driver sleepiness contributes to a great number of motor vehicle accidents every year. In order to reduce the number of sleepiness related accidents, more knowledge on e.g. prevalence, countermeasures and driver behaviour is needed. Data from field...

Observer Rated Sleepiness and Real Road Driving

The aim of the present study was to explore if observer rated sleepiness (ORS) is a feasible method for quantification of driver sleepiness in field studies. Two measures of ORS were used:one for behavioural signs based on facial expression, body...

Fit-for-duty test for estimation of drivers’ sleepiness level

Driver sleepiness contributes to a considerable proportion of road accidents, and a fit-for-duty test able to measure a driver’s sleepiness level might improve traffic safety. The aim of this study was to develop a fit-for-duty test based on eye...

Uttröttning - vad säger lagen?

Årligen skadas och dödas människor i trafiken i olyckor då förare kör alltför sömniga. Regelverket reglerar körning i trött tillstånd på lite olika sätt. Det kan diskuteras om befintligt regelverk är tillräckligt tydligt för att leda till straff men...

Sleepy driving on the real road and in the simulator

This study compared real driving with driving in a high fidelity, moving base, driving simulator with respect to driving performance, sleep related physiology (using electroencephalography and electrooculography) and subjective sleepiness during...

Having to stop driving at night because of dangerous sleepiness

A large number of accidents are due to the driver falling asleep at the wheel, but details of this link have not been studied on a real road. The purpose of the present study was to describe the development of sleepiness indicators, leading to the...

The impact of sleepiness on lane positioning in truck driving

This chapter concerns the detection of sleepiness in truck drivers. Data obtained from a driver sleepiness study involving real-world driving are used in order to analyse the performance of several sleepiness indicators based on driving behavior;...

SAFEWAY2SCHOOL

Denna rapport är en sammanfattning av resultaten från EU-projektet SAFEWAY2SCHOOL, som bedrivits inom 7:e ramprogrammet under åren 2009 till och med augusti 2012. Rapporten är särskilt inriktad på den svenska fältstudien i Örnsköldsvik, där...

Varför skjutsar föräldrarna barnen till skolan?

Många kommuner upplever problem i samband med att barnen skjutsas till skolan med bil av föräldrarna i stället för att gå, cykla eller åka buss eller skolskjuts. Detta leder i sin tur till minskad trafiksäkerhet i området kring skolorna. Den här...

Förares tankar om framtida automatiserad bilkörning

Det man ofta avser med automatiserad körning är möjligheten att låta föraren överlåta en del- eller hela köruppgiften till fordonet själv. Det kan även handla om att fordonet själv ska kunna ta över kontrollen i en situation som föraren inte klarar...

Speed Adaptation Control by Self-Explaining Roads (SPACE)

This paper describes the SPACE project (Speed Adaptation Control by Self-Explaining Roads). This is a European project, funded by ERANET Road initiative, looking at the meaning of self-explaining roads and what types of measures are most effective...

In-car countermeasures open window and music revisited on the real road

This study investigated the effects of two very commonly used countermeasures against driver sleepiness, opening the window and listening to music, on subjective and physiological sleepiness measures during real road driving. In total, 24...

Boende, pendlare och lastbilsförare tycker till om riksväg 23 och riksväg 40

Det är tydligt att de boende vid en väg vill vara delaktiga när en ombyggnation genomförs i deras närområde. Enligt en studie som VTI har gjort skulle Trafikverket med stor sannolikhet tjäna på att göra de boende mer delaktiga under processen och...

Measuring driver impairments

Snow was falling heavily when Sarah was driving on a slippery road to her cousin’s country cottage. It was dark outside, and the visibility was poor. She had planned to arrive before sunset, but the rental service had made a mistake, and it took...

Sleepiness, crashes and the effectiveness of countermeasures

Research shows that the impact of fatigue/sleepiness on traffic safety is high. The aim of this report is to summarize the findings of different studies conducted as part of the ERANET node 15 priority with a focus on driver sleepiness, its cause...

Skylt vid skolskjutshållplatser i Linköping

Linköping municipality has in autumn 2010 and spring 2011 made an inventory of bus stop sites for school children within the municipality. At those locations where no bus stop sign existed, a new type of sign was set up to mark the school bus stop...

Is European school transport safe?

Purpose To identify and establish the number and aetiology behind children being killed or injured during school transport from a door-to-door perspective by using experience from Sweden and the UK.Methods Available crash data were analysed. Results...

Camera-based sleepiness detection

Two literature reviews were conducted in order to identify indicators of driver sleepiness and distraction. Three sleepiness indicators – blink duration, blink frequency and Perclos – were implemented in the camera system.The aims of the study were...

Rumble strips in centre of the lane and the effect on sleepy drivers

The aim of this study was to describe the effects of sleep loss on behavioural and subjective indicators of sleepiness on a road containing a milled rumble strip in the centre of the lane. Particular attention was paid to behavioural and subjective...

Effectiveness of traditional countermeasures

Approximately 20% of motor vehicle crashes are caused by sleepiness or fatigue . Therefore, the search of effective countermeasures against driver sleepiness is a key issue in crash prevention. While caffeine, energy drinks and napping have been...

Effectiveness of blue light

At night, driving ability is impaired by sleepiness induced by sleep deprivation. To meet societal demand, it is necessary to develop countermeasures to fight this drowsiness. Currently, caffeine and naps are effective countermeasures but they have...

Sleepiness and the risk of car crash

Driver sleepiness is believed to be a strong contributing factor to road traffic crashes. Acute sleepiness risk factors, such as driving during early morning hours or having insufficient sleep, was observed in 15% to 25% of the car crash injuries in...

The characteristics of sleepiness during real driving at night

Most studies of sleepy driving have been carried out in driving simulators. A few studies of real driving are available, but these have used only a few sleepiness indicators. The purpose of the present study was to characterize sleepiness in several...

Exploring Driver Behaviour Using Simulated Worlds

This chapter presents the background, along with some illustrated examples, of simulator applications for the needs of assessing novel systems and infrastructure interventions, in terms of enhancing the forgiving and self-explanatory nature of a...

Watch Out! Something Precious is Moving

One critical situation when a driver needs to have a high degree of awareness, to avoid critical situations or crashes, is when passing a school bus, stopped for boarding or de-boarding of children. With the help of an experiment in VTI’s moving...

Pilot plans

The current Deliverable outlines the actual planning for the execution of the SAFEWAY2SCHOOL Pilots and is prepared in the context of WP7: “Verification Pilots evaluation” and specifically A7.1: “Evaluation Framework”. Pilots are experiments with...

Det nya hastighetssystemet

Syftet med studien var att utifrån en kvalitativ ansats beskriva olika trafikantgruppers samt boendegruppers tankar kring de nya hastighetsgränserna gällande framkomlighet och trafiksäkerhet. Genom fokusgrupper har två trafikantgrupper på landsbygd...

Utveckling och prövning av ny skolskjutsskylt

I samband med av- och påstigning av buss utsätts passagerare för risker från övrig trafik. Barn är speciellt utsatta i samband med färd till och från skolan och det finns därför starka skäl att försöka förmå de fordon som passerar en stillastående...

Utvärdering av effekten av förstärkt information vid övergångsställe (FIVÖ)

Förstärkt information vid övergångsställe, så kallade FIVÖ-system, är effektivt i termer av att öka fotgängares upplevelse av säkerhet och trygghet vid passage av övergångsstället. Syftet med föreliggande studie var att utvärdera effektiviteten av...

Detecting sleepiness by Optalert

Many crashes with heavy vehicle can be attributed to driver sleepiness or driving impairment due to sleepiness, and it is important to find methods to predict those situations and counteract this problem. The Optalert fatigue management system...

Piloting smart safe school bus

Purpose: Road crash statistics reveal that school children are frequent victims and the most risky situation is when the child is outside the bus. The aim of this pilot study was to explore possible changes in speed, implementation of routines,...

Estimated societal costs of a hierarchical measures approach to enhanced school...

Purpose: Most school bus related injury events in Sweden take place when the child is outside the bus. In order to enhance their safety, the societal costs of four different measures applied on “bus stops” on high speed roads were...

Externt och internt buller samt vibrationer vid körning på sinusräfflor

Studien omfattar en jämförelse av ljudnivåer och vibrationer i fordon vid körning på två typer av räffelutformning, en konventionellt fräst räffla och en sinusformad räffla.Mätningar av interna och externa ljudnivåer samt vibrationer i chassi och...

Nya hastighetsgränser i Sverige

This report is one of several sub-projects under the mission "New speed limits - Follow-up 2008-2011". The report aims to highlight the drivers' view of the national speed limit changes that have been made under Phase I, concerning speed limits on...

Räfflor i mitten av körfältet

The aim with the study was to evaluate the effects on road user behavior when using milled rumble strips in the centre of the lane on a road 6.5 meters wide. The evaluation included measurements of speed and lateral position. Measurements were done...

Reaction of sleepiness indicators to partial sleep deprivation, time of day and time on...

Studies of driving and sleepiness indicators have mainly focused on prior sleep reduction. The present study sought to identify sleepiness indicators responsive to several potential regulators of sleepiness: sleep loss, time of day (TOD) and time on...

Sleepiness and prediction of driver impairment in simulator studies using a Cox...

Cox proportional hazard models were used to study relationships between the event that a driver is leaving the lane caused by sleepiness and different indicators of sleepiness. In order to elucidate different indicators' performance, five different...

Comparison and analysis of user and stakeholder needs across different countries

The current deliverable aims at presenting the results of the analysis of stakeholder needs, in order to have support for selecting the most relevant use cases. For the identification of user requirements of all stakeholders relevant to school...

Ansvar och roller vid skolskjutsning

There is a need to increase knowledge about different actors' (municipality, school, bus driver/contractor and parents) view of their role in relation to school transport. The present study aims to create a more detailed description about the...

Trötthet vid ratten

Trötthet i samband med körning är ett problem som genererar olyckor och skador i trafiken. Att förare är sömniga kan framförallt härledas till att körning sker trots att förare sovit för lite, varit vakna för länge eller för att körningen sker på...

Evaluation of a sleepiness warning system

Sleep related crashes have received increasing attention over the past decade. Driver support systems that are able to detect sleepiness and warn the driver could be a potential countermeasure to reduce sleepiness related crashes. The aim of this...

Project presentation

SAFEWAY2SCHOOL is a European research project carried out by research institutes, universities and industry in order to enhance safety for children on their daily way to school. SAFEWAY2SCHOOL aims to design, develop, integrate and evaluate...

Småskalig ITS

This study investigates the acceptance and effect of variable message signs (VMS). Two different systems were evaluated: one where a speed limit sign was combined with a message to slow down and another where a speed limit sign was combined with...

Trafikanternas uppfattning om frästa räfflor i mitten på 2-fältsväg

The number of crashes caused by driver sleepiness or driver distraction is high. Rumble strips (milled) could be an alternative countermeasure on narrow roads where fences are not possible to be used. The Swedish Road Administration has initiated an...

Smartare Säkrare Skolbuss

Some 400,000 children go to school by school bus in Sweden every day. The most risky situation is when the child is outside the bus entering or exiting, lack of routines being the major cause. The present study utilised off-the-shelf technology, in...

The effect of milled rumble strips versus virtual rumble strips on sleepy drivers

The aim of the EU project IN-SAFETY is to create effective combinations of traditional infrastructure measures combined with new technology to increase the self-explanatory and forgiving nature of the road traffic system. This report describes the...

Advantages and disadvantages of different methods to evaluate sleepiness warning systems

This is a methodological paper with the aim to discuss pros and cons related to different tools and environments when evaluating the effect of warnings given to sleepy drivers. There is no simple answer to the question which platform is most...

The effects of driving situation on sleepiness indicators after sleep loss

Almost all studies of sleepy driving are carried out in driving simulators and with monotonous road conditions (no interaction with other cars). The present study investigated indicators of sleepy driving in a more challenging scenario after a night...

Riktlinjer och observationsunderlag för att avgöra om en olycka har orsakats av att...

Många olyckor sker där orsaken till olyckan är att föraren var uttröttad. Exakt hur många sådana olyckor som sker är dock svårt att avgöra. Föreliggande studie är en metodstudie i syfte att ta fram riktlinjer och observationsunderlag för att i...

The alerting effect of hitting a rumble strip

A moving base driving simulator experiment was carried out in order to investigate the effects of milled rumble strips on driver fatigue. There were rumble strips both at the edge line and centre line. Four different physical designs of milled...

Yrkesförares förväntningar och erfarenheter av frästa räfflor med omkörningsfält på rv 33

In order to increase the traffic safety on narrow roads the Swedish Road Administration has decided to use milled rumble strips at centre line in combination with overtaking sections. One of the road sections were this will be used is parts of road...

Passering av buss i 30 km/h

A simulator study was conducted to investigate the implementation of a new law which prescribes a speed limit of 30 km/h when passing buses equipped with a 30-sign and flashing lights. It was shown that the drivers follow the rule better when they...

Transportsystemets kunder

Kunskapsöversiktens utgångspunkt har varit transportsystemets kunder så som de identifieras av Vägverket. Ett syfte var att identifiera teoretiska och metodologiska brister eller luckor som kan kopplas till Vägverkets användning av begreppet kund,...

Utvärdering av ett fordonsbundet varningssystem

One alternative to rumble strips is to simulate them in the car by vibrations in the driver's seat. Citroen has a lane departure warning system in the models C4 and C5 which has been evaluated from user experience. A focus group was carried out with...

Säkerhet och trygghet i samband med skolskjuts

School transportation should be safe, secure and accessible for all children entitled to such transportation, regardless of any disability. On a daily basis, 440,000 children utilise school transportation, several thousands of them having some sort...

Placement and design of milled rumble strips on centre line and shoulder

A driving simulator experiment was carried out in order to investigate the effects on fatigued drivers of rumble strips on narrow roads (both shoulder and centre lines. The driving simulator was an advanced moving base passenger car simulator (VTI´s...

Frästa räfflor i mitten på tvåfältsväg

Milled rumble strips in combination with the centre line could be a way toimprove traffic safety and to explore the concept of selfexplanatory roads asa counter measure. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether a centre linein combination with a...