Carrots and sticks

Maritime transport is a major source of emissions of harmful air pollutants and carbon dioxide. A research team from the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI) and the University of Gothenburg has received SEK 6.4 million to analyse policy instruments and measures that can reduce emissions from maritime transport most cost-effectively. The project is called Carrots and sticks.

The project is funded by Vinnova (50 percent) and The Swedish Transport Administration (50 percent). The project has been prolonged until 31st of March 2020.

Information on the project will be published here on a continuous basis.

The objective of the project is to:

  • identify, describe and classify policy instruments and measures in shipping which directly or indirectly address the environmental objectives Reduced climate impact, Clean air, Natural acidification only and Zero eutrophication
  • analyse and assess to what extent these policy instruments and measures contribute to reduced impacts on people's health and the environment and to fulfil relevant political goals
  • perform an iterative Delphi study with the main stake holders to identify the potentials and barriers of different policy instruments
  • perform cost benefit analyses and qualitative analyses for different policy instruments and combinations of policy instruments
  • recommend which policy instruments measures Sweden should move forward with at the national and international level

The objective of the project is in line with the Swedish transport policy goals, specifically the "consideration goal", Sweden's Maritime strategy and Fossil-free transport strategy and EU and UN's policy and goals in the corresponding areas.

New with the project is the analysis of which combination of policy instruments and measures is most cost-effective taking into account all four environmental goals. There is currently no comprehensive analysis of the policy instruments and measures that have been implemented. No previous study has dealt with the instruments and measures needed to promote and ensure a speedy and comprehensive solutions that reduce air pollution and CO2 emissions from shipping. Analyses of the impact of policy instruments and measures have focused on CO2 emissions or one air pollutant at a time. The project represents an evolution of projects that focused on technical and operational efficiency.

A description of the project Carrots and stics (in Swedish)

Project group

  • Inge Vierth, VTI (Project leader)
  • Prof. Yvonne Andersson-Sköld, VTI, Chalmers tekniska högskola (Chalmers University of Technology)
  • Mikael Johannesson, VTI
  • Tobias Lindé, VTI
  • Cecilia Gustafsson, VTI
  • Prof Kevin Cullinane, VTI, Göteborgs universitet (Gothenburg University)
  • Marta Gonzalez Aregall, Göteborgs universitet (Gothenburg University)
  • Anastasia Christodoulou, Göteborgs universitet (Gothenburg University)

Reference group

  • Fredrik Larsson, Svensk Sjöfart (Swedish Shipowners' Association)
  • Leif Holmberg, Naturvårdsverket (Swedish Environmental Protection Agency)
  • Sofi Holmin-Fridell, Sjöfartsverket (Swedish Maritime Agency)
  • Katarina Wigler, Transportstyrelsen (Swedish Transport Agency)
  • Anna Petersson, Transportstyrelsen (Swedish Transport Agency)
  • Emil Fastén, Trafikverket (Swedish Transport Administration)
  • Björn Garberg, Trafikverket (Swedish Transport Administration)
  • Helena Leander, Energimyndigheten (Swedish Energy Agency)
  • Christine Hanefalk, Sveriges hamnar (Ports of Sweden)
  • Åsa Burman, Lighthouse
  • Christer Ågren, Luftförorenings- och klimatsekretariatet (Air Pollution and Climate Secretariat)
  • Prof Siri Strandenes, Norges Handelshögskola (Norweigan School of Economics)

The Carrots and Sticks project cooperates with another project within the same area. In this other project researchers from IVL and Chalmers University will evalute the environmental issues due to maritime transport to find the most effective policy instruments. This project is financed by The Swedish Transport Administration.


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