Svante Mandell


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Research results from Svante


Why truck distance taxes are contagious and drive fuel taxes to the bottom

This paper analyzes the way in which countries with international and local truck traffic decide to switch from a simple fuel tax system to a dual system of fuel and distance charge taxes. We show what drives a country to switch and how this affects...

The effect of minimum parking requirements on the housing stock

The cost of parking is in many cities subsidized and instead channelled through higher housing prices, wages, taxes, etc. The effects on other markets are principally well known, but the work on the area is limited. In this paper, we study how...

Freight transport, policy instruments and climate

The impact of policy instruments supposed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from road freight transports may seem smaller than expected. Using insights from economics and contract theory, the paper sorts out the (possible) instances of market...

Land based freight transports, climate and policy

In this report, we discuss greenhouse gas emissions from freight transport and how they could be reduced. We address these questions from several different angles. For example, we discuss the introduction of so-called green corridors and propose...

[Land based freight transports, climate and policy]

VTI notat 28-2014 contains the ten underlying reports which is the base for VTI report 831: “Land based freight transports, climate and policy – Summary report”. In VTI report 831, the researchers discuss greenhouse gas emissions from freight...

Too much balance in unbalanced bidding

This article adds to the theoretical base of unbalanced bidding in auction theory. The importance of this concept is justified by being a decisive feature in the make-or-buy decision of a client who cannot rely on repeated interaction, often the...

Carbon Emissions and Cost Benefit Analyses

New infrastructure projects may affect CO2 emissions and, thus, cost benefit analyses for these projects require a value to apply for CO2. This may be based on the marginal social cost of emissions or on the carbon price resulting from present and...

Financial infrastructure and house prices

We argue that banks operating in a local market possess better information about the local housing market than do non-local banks. Possessing this information may influence their willingness to grant loans to house buyers and the specifics of the...

In search of the innovative agency

This report makes suggestions for how the government can improve on the monitoring of its agencies and the productivity of its activities. The instrument for doing so is to ascertain a regular review of costs in the contract signed between...

Where does all the money go?

It is possible to enhance the cost effectiveness of infrastructure investments in the public sector. In this VTI report it is also stated that the costs for implementing a system which would facilitate the identification of successes and failures...

Can the market for freight transport be expected to deliver efficient services?

A large share of Sweden’s aggregate use of energy is used in the transport sector, a third of which is used for freight transport purposes. Excluding the recent downturn in the business cycle, traffic and therefore also the use of energy, increases...

On assessing climate effects of electrifying the transport sector

Shifting transportation to electrified modes, e.g., rail, is a politically attractive way of reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the transportation sector. There is a vivid debate about the effects such a shift has on GHG emission and how...

Climate effects of electrifying the transport sector

This paper discusses principles for identifying and appraising the impact on GHG (green house gases) emissions from electrifying transportation. We are primarily interested in the road-to-rail case, but the principles apply to other cases as well,...

Carbon Emission Values in Cost Benefit Analyses

New infrastructure projects may affect CO(2) emissions and, thus, cost benefit analyses for these projects require a value to apply for CO(2). This may be based on the marginal social cost of emissions or on the shadow price resulting from present...

Willingness to pay for sustainable housing

This paper analyzed the differences between house buyers when valuing environmental characteristics associated with the house. The theoretical framework used is based on hedonic modeling, but the second stage is estimated by assuming a translog...

Quantity Choice in Unit Price Contract Procurements

We study the optimal quantity to procure when unit price contracts (UPC) are used and there is uncertainty surrounding the actualrequired quantity will be. The model shows that the optimal quantity, i.e., the one that minimizes the procurer’s...

Quantity choice in unit price contract procurements

A common approach for procuring large construction projects is through Unit Price Contracts. By the means of a simple model, we study the optimal quantity to procure under uncertainty regarding the actual required quantity given that the procurer...

Why are bids not more unbalanced?

Earlier theoretical models of unbalanced bidding in unit price contracts (UPC) ofter predict corner solutions, i.e. zero bids for unit prices of expected overextimated quantities. However, anecdotal evidence indicates a lack of zero bids in the...

Climate valuation in the planning of infrastructure

This report studies the principles behind selecting a monetized value for CO2 emissions in cost-benefit analyses. It also aims at discussing the fundamental uncertainties associated with estimating a CO2 value. However, the report does not suggest a...

Opportunity cost for Free Allocations of Emissions Permits

An important feature of emissions trading is how emissions permits are allocated. The choice between an auction and free allocation should not influence firms' production choices nor consumer prices according to economic theory. However, many...

Steering the European transport greenhouse gas emissions under uncertainty

This paper addresses how to regulate greenhouse gas emissions from the transport sector when abatement costs are uncertain. In ail EU context, it is shown that a combination of a cap-and-trade system and emission taxes is preferable as it minimises...

Willingness to pay for sustainable housing

Over the last decades there has been an increasing focus on how to build a sustainable society and in particular on how to design policies that pushes the society into a more sustainable direction. The present paper aims at analysing differences...

Carbon emission values in cost benefit analyses

New infrastructure projects may affect CO2 emissions and, thus, cost benefit analyses for these projects require a value to apply for CO2. The value may be based on the marginal social cost associated with emissions or on the shadow price resulting...

A comparison of unit price and fixed price contracts for infrastructure construction...

Today’s dominant mechanism for infrastructure project tendering is the Unit Price Contract (UPC). While the winning bidder retains risk related to the unit price bids submitted, the Principal carries all risk related to misspecification of the...

Teaching Opportunity Cost in an Emissions Permit Experiment

This paper describes an individual choice experiment that can be used to teach students how to correctly account for opportunity costs in production decisions. Students play the role of producers that require a fuel input and an emissions permit for...

Policies towards a more efficient car fleet

Transportation within the EU, as in most of the industrialized world, shows an increasing trend in CO2 emissions. This calls for measures to decrease the amount of transportation but also to increase the efficiency in the vehicle fleet. To achieve...

Pricing strategies under emissions trading

Transportation within the EU, as in most of the industrialized world, shows an increasing trend in CO2 emissions. This calls for measures both to decrease the amount of transportation and/or to increase the efficiency in the vehicle fleet. The...

Prices and quantities in a climate policy setting

This paper takes its departure in two observations from the EU’s climate policy. First, the EU has adopted a dual approach with a trading scheme covering CO2 emissions from the energy intensive industry, while the remaining emitters are subject to...

Incentives for innovation and adoption of new technology under emissions trading

A common claim in both the public and academic debate is that a tradable emission permits scheme does not provide sufficient incentives for R&D investments. The present paper addresses R&D investments and penetration rates of new technology focusing...

Optimal mix of emissions taxes and cap-and-trade

In practice, different emitters of a particular pollutant are sometimes subjected to different control mechanisms. This paper focuses on the situation where a part of the economy is regulated by a cap-and-trade program, while the rest is subjected...

Steering the European transport greenhouse gas emissions under uncertainty

This paper addresses how to regulate greenhouse gas emissions from the transport sector when abatement costs are uncertain. In an EU context, it is shown that a combination of a cap-and-trade system and emission taxes is preferable as it minimizes...

Policies towards a more efficient car fleet

Transportation within the EU, as in most of the industrialized world, shows an increasing trend in CO2 emissions. This calls for measures both to decrease the amount of transportation and/or to increase the efficiency in the vehicle fleet. The...

The choice of multiple or single auctions in emissions trading

Whether CO2 permit auctions should be held on one, several or many occasions per commitment period has not been discussed at any length in the literature. When at all observed, auction frequency has often been set at once per month or quarter. Here,...