Maria Börjesson


Picture of Maria Börjesson

Maria's research interests include transport cost-benefit analysis, appraisal and sustainability, transport policy and pricing for all modes, public opinions, transport modelling, travel behaviour, gender differences, active mobility and cycling, the impact of the transport system on employment and producitivty, railway economics, survey design, choice experiments, and econometrics for valuation of non-market goods such as travel time, reliability and security.

External affiliated to the Choice modelling Centre, ITS Leeds. Secretary of the board of International Transportation Economics Association (ITEA). Member of SNS Konjunkturråd 2016 (Economic Policy Council 2016: Centre for Business and Policy Studies).

Research results from Maria


Optimal prices and frequencies for buses in Stockholm

Many public transport services are heavily subsidized. One of the main justifications is the expected beneficial effect on road congestion. Stockholm introduced congestion pricing in 2006 and the effects on car and public transport demand were...

Labour Market Accessibility and Unemployment

This paper estimates the relationship between temporal changes in unemployment and changes in labour market accessibility in Sweden. The accessibility measure is derived from the national transport model taking consumer behaviour, all travel modes,...

Explaining “peak car” with economic variables

Many western countries have seen a plateau and subsequent decrease of car travel during the 21st century. What has generated particular interest and debate is the statement that the development cannot be explained by changes in traditional...

Ett gigantiskt projekt med oklart syfte


Why experience changes attitudes to congestion pricing: The case of Gothenburg

Many cities have seen public support for congestion charges increase substantially after charges have been introduced. Several alternative explanations of this phenomenon have been suggested, but so far little evidence has been available to assess...

Factors driving public support for road congestion reduction policies: Congestion...

Based on an across-the-board survey conducted among residents of Stockholm, Helsinki and Lyon, we explore the opinions on three policy measures to combat road congestion: congestion charging, free public transport and building more roads. The...

Peak car?: Drivers of the recent decline in Swedish car use

It has long been well-known that economic variables such as GDP and fuel price as well as socio-demographic characteristics and spatial distribution are key factors explaining car use trends. However, due. to the recently observed plateau of total...

Response time patterns in a stated choice experiment

This paper studies how response times vary between unlabelled binary choice occasions in a stated choice (SC) experiment, with alternatives differing with respect to in-vehicle travel time and travel cost. The pattern of response times is...

The Gothenburg congestion charge: Effects, design and politics

This paper summarizes the traffic effects of the Gothenburg congestion charges introduced in 2013. The system is similar to the system introduced in Stockholm in 2006; both are designed as time-of-day dependent cordon pricing systems. We find that...

Not invented here: Transferability of congestion charges effects

The purpose of this paper is to explore to what extent the effects of congestion charges rely on specific features of a city and its transport system. We use Stockholm, and its current congestion charging scheme, as a case study by making various...

Inter-temporal variation in the travel time and travel cost parameters of transport models

The parameters for travel time and travel cost are central in travel demand forecasting models. Since valuation of infrastructure investments requires prediction of travel demand for future evaluation years, inter-temporal variation of the travel...

Experiences from the Swedish Value of Time study

We provide a synthesis of results and insights from the Swedish Value of Time study, with focus on what is relevant for transport appraisal and understanding travel behavior. We summarize recent econometric advances, and show how these enable a...

Peak Car for urban Swedish men?

We study long-term trends in regional car travel demand within and across socio-demographic groups in Sweden, using cross-sectional data from National Travel Surveys, spanning the period from 1978 to 2011. We find that the reduction in per-adult...

Peak Car?: Drivers of  the recent decline in Swedish car use

It has long been well-known that economic variables such as GDP and fuel price as well as socio-demographic characteristics and spatial distribution are key factors explaining car use trends. However, due to the recently observed plateau of total...

Is CBA ranking of transport investments robust?

Cost-benefit analyses (CBA) are often questioned on the grounds that results depend crucially on uncertain assumptions about the future, and on ethically or methodologically contestable trade-offs between different types of benefits. This paper...

Within-Individual Variation in Preferences Equity Effects of Congestion Charges

The purpose of this research was to explore how the values of travel time (VTT) and preferences for different modes vary within individuals compared with the variation between observed trips. With 6-week revealed preference panel data and stated...

The benefits of cycling: Viewing cyclists as travellers rather than non-motorists

Purpose – This chapter provides a think piece on economic evaluation and policy for cycling. Bicycle investments are often motivated by a desire to improve health, the environment and congestion conditions. However, we argue that since the bicycle...

The impact of travel costs and economic growth on cost-benefit analysis rankings

The use of Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) as a tool for selecting transport investments is often questioned. It is not unusual that politicians or others in the public debate argue that the outcome of a CBA completely rely on assumptions concerning a...

Valuing perceived insecurity associated with use of and access to public transport

This study uses a stated choice experiment and drawings of four different type-environments to assess how various security-promoting factors in the built physical environment influence valuation of walking time when accessing public transport....

Catching the tail: Empirical identification of the distribution of the value of...

Recent methodological advances in discrete choice analysis in combination with certain stated choice experiments have allowed researchers to check empirically the identification of the distribution of latent variables such as the value of travel...

On the income elasticity of the value of travel time

Transport infrastructure is long-term and in appraisal it is necessary to value travel timesavings for future years. This requires knowing how the value of time (VTT) will develop over time as incomes grow. This paper investigates if the...

The value of time and external benefits in bicycle appraisal

We estimate the value of time savings, different cycling environments and additional benefits in cost-benefit analysis of cycling investments. Cyclists' value of travel time savings turns out to be high, considerably higher than the value of time...

Valuations of travel time variability in scheduling versus mean-variance models

The standard method of estimating the value of travel time variability for use in policy appraisal is to estimate the parameters of a reduced-form utility function, where some measure of travel time variability (such as the standard deviation) is...

The Stockholm congestion charges-5 years on. Effects, acceptability and lessons learnt

Congestion charges were introduced in Stockholm in 2006, first as a trial followed by a referendum, then permanently from 2007. This paper discusses what conclusions can be drawn from the first five years of operation, until mid-2011. We show that...

Properties of Internet and Telephone Data Collection Methods in a Stated Choice Value of...

We analyze Internet and telephone Stated Choice (SC) survey methods in the context of the Swedish value of time study 2008. In this study, extensive piloting and follow up surveys was undertaken to assure high quality data. We use these data and...

On the use of "average delay" as a measure of train reliability

We investigate how passengers on long-distance trains value unexpected delays relative to scheduled travel time and travel cost. For scheduled services with high reliability and long headways, the value of delays is most commonly assumed to be...

Valuating perceived insecurity associated with use of and access to public transport

This study uses a stated choice experiment and drawings of four different type-environments to assess how various security-promoting factors in the built physical environment influence valuation of walking time when accessing public transport....

The Stockholm congestion charges – 4 years on: Effects, acceptability and lessons learnt

Congestion charges were introduced in Stockholm in 2006, first as a trial followed by a referendum, then permanently from 2007. This paper discusses what conclusions can be drawn from the first four years of operation. We show that the traffic...

Valuation of Travel Time Variability in Scheduling versus Mean-Variance Models

The standard method to estimate valuations of travel timevariability for use in appraisal is to estimate the parametersof a reduced-form utility function, where some measure oftravel time variability (such as the standard deviation) isincluded. A...

The value of time and external benefits in bicycle cost-benefit analyses

We estimate the value of time gains, different cycling environments and additional benefits in cost-benefit analysis of cycling investments. Cyclists’ value of travel time savings turns out to be high, considerably higher than the value of time...

Modelling the preference for scheduled and unexpected delays

This paper describes a study undertaken to estimate a departure-time and mode-choice model for Stockholm. The model is segmented according to trip purpose, and a mixed - or error component - logit model is estimated. Estimation draws on stated...

The income elasticity of the value of travel time is not one number

This paper provides new evidence on the evolution of the value of travel time (VTT) over time and its relation to income based on two essentially identical Stated Choice experiments conducted at an interval of 13 years. The results indicate that the...

Joint RP-SP data in a mixed logit analysis of trip timing decisions

In the current paper, a departure time choice model including travel time variability is estimated, combining stated preference and revealed preference data. We account for response scale differences between RP and SP data and, applying the mixed...

Train passengers' valuation of travel time unreliability

For scheduled services with relatively high reliability and long headways, most common approach is the “expected delay” approach, where passengers are assumed to value a possible delay proportional to its expected value. Common measures of...