Jan-Eric Nilsson


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Research results from Jan-Eric


Underhåll i egen regi?: metod och databehov för en utvärdering av järnvägsunderhåll

Maintenance of the state-owned railway network in Sweden is currently tendered in competition. However, during 2016, the infrastructure manager Trafikverket (Swedish Transport Administration) was commissioned by the Swedish government to analyze and...

Erfarenheter av privat finansiering av offentlig infrastruktur

A government committee has asked VTI to give an account of domestic and international experiences of private funding of public infrastructure investment under the Public Private Partnership (PPP) format. This report is based on a literature review...

Konkurrens på och om marknaden för persontrafik med tåg: svenska erfarenheter

A paper documenting the organisation of rail passenger services in England, Germany and Sweden was published in 2013; cf. Nash et al (2013). During 2016, the Centre for Regulation in Europe (CERRE) commissioned a follow-up study, examining the...

Arlandabanan: konsekvenser av förändrade strategier

In year 2000, railway operations started between Arlanda airport and downtown Stockholm. The service is part of a PPP contract that includes construction and maintenance as well as service provision for a period of 45 years after the initiation of...

Degrees of freedom and innovations in construction contracts

DB (Design and build) and DBB (Design-bid-build) represent two different contracting forms in construction. The first provides the contractor degrees of freedom in design, which enables innovation. DBB is the safe and traditional contracting form,...

Kvalitetsavgifter: problem och tänkbara lösningar

In July 2014, the government assigned VTI to support the National Traffic Administration (Trafikverket) in its task to further elaborate on the design of the Swedish Performance Scheme. This report concludes that the scheme in its current version...

Effektiva kontraktsmodeller för vägunderhåll

The study in this report reviews international experiences of contracting of routine road maintenance. The study describes the contracting models used in Norway, Scotland and Ontario (Canada), as well as the results from the relevant research...

SAMKOST 2: redovisning av regeringsuppdrag kring trafikens samhällsekonomiska kostnader

In December 2012, the government commissioned VTI to update the social marginal costs for using infrastructure for all modes of transport based on state-of-the-art knowledge in the research community. A final report was submitted in December 2013...

The marginal cost of reinvestments in Sweden’s railway network

This study provides new estimates of the marginal cost of railway reinvestments using Swedish data on reinvestment costs, traffic, and other railway network characteristics for the period 1999–2014. The empirical analysis is based on a two-part...

Ad hoc-processen: hur används ledig kapacitet i järnvägsnätet?

After the Swedish Transport Administration’s adoption of next year's timetable in mid-fall each year, starts the so-called ad hoc process, i.e. requests for train paths that can use spare capacity in the network. VTI received in September 2015...

The allocation of transport infrastructure in Swedish municipalities: Welfare...

This paper compares models for explaining the volume of transport investments in Swedish municipalities: 1 by the planned projects’ welfare consequences, 2. in terms of the district demand (the common pool) model, namely a municipality's share of...

Implementing Optimal Supply of Public Transport: The Choice between Tendering and...

This paper compares two approaches for providing public transport: competitive tendering and targeted subsidies. The subsidy option means that commercial operators charge a fare, and are paid by the public sector principal both per passenger and per...

The allocation of transport infrastructure in Swedish municipalities: welfare...

The choice of transport infrastructure projects to include in the National Transport Infrastructure Plans in Sweden is often said to be motivated by the weighing of cost against social benefits. Examining the projects that are included in the Plans,...

Estimating the marginal costs of road wear

Using a large set of data, including age, pavement type, traffic etc., on sections of the road network, this paper sets out to assess the marginal cost of using the road infrastructure. It suggests a strategy for identifying major differences in...

Hur väl fungerar försäkringsbranschen?


Tidtabelläggning: principer, tumregler och utfall

The Swedish Transport Agency (Transportstyrelsen) has commissioned VTI to assist in deepening the understanding of the way in which existing railway infrastructure can be efficiently used. The assignment also includes giving advice to the agency’s...

Congestion and scarcity in scheduled transport modes

Congestion is a familiar concept within the road sector, first and foremost since it provides a very hands-on and frequent experience for many drivers. Analytically, congestion is an external effect within the collective of drivers in so far as the...

Regress - en god idé i järnvägssektorn?

VTI has been commissioned to analyze the preconditions for, and possible consequences of introducing the possibility of regress in the railway industry. Regress refers to the possibility of anyone that is stricken by financial consequences of train...

Estimating the marginal maintenance cost of rail infrastructure usage in Sweden: does...

This paper updates knowledge about the marginal cost of railway maintenance. Using a panel dataset comprising 16 years, we test whether more data makes a difference to conclusions. In contrast to previous estimates using a shorter panel, maintenance...

Freight transport, policy instruments and climate

The impact of policy instruments supposed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from road freight transports may seem smaller than expected. Using insights from economics and contract theory, the paper sorts out the (possible) instances of market...

En modell för produktivitetsanalys av väginvesteringar

The construction industry’s productivity performance, measured on an aggregate level, is dismal compared to other industries. Despite a substandard performance, no reasons have been established. One explanation is that disaggregate data facilitating...

Degrees of freedom in road construction

One policy that is believed to increase the rate of innovation and the level of productivity is to move from Design-bid-build contracts (DBB) to Design-Build contracts (DB). A common view is that the latter provides the contractor more degrees of...

SAMKOST: redovisning av regeringsuppdrag kring trafikens samhällsekonomiska kostnader

In December 2012, the Swedish government commissioned VTI to update the social marginal costs for using infrastructure for all modes of transport based on state-of-the-art knowledge in the research community. The task has been implemented by...

En granskning av information över tågförseningar år 2012

The purpose of this report is to document the quality of data from the Swedish Transport Administration regarding train delays, in order to assess whether it can be used to deepen the understanding of the size of the delays and the conditions that...

Mapping railways maintenance contracts: the case of Netherlands, Finland and UK

In 1988, Sweden was the first country in Europe to separate the ownership of railway infrastructure from traffic operations. Starting in 2002, maintenance has gradually been contracted out. Sweden, Finland and Holland – and previously England – have...

Optimal supply of public transport: subsidising production or consumption or both?

This paper compares two approaches for providing public transport: competitive tendering and vouchers. The functioning of tendering is well known. The voucher alternative means that commercial operators charge passengers a fare and are also paid by...

Landbaserade godstransporter, klimat och styrmedel: underlagsrapporter 1-10

VTI notat 28-2014 contains the ten underlying reports which is the base for VTI report 831: “Land based freight transports, climate and policy – Summary report”. In VTI report 831, the researchers discuss greenhouse gas emissions from freight...

Två studier av kostnader för upphandlade asfaltbeläggningar

This report presents the results of two studies that analyze the costs of the Swedish Transport Administration’s (Trafikverket) tendered contracts for road pavements. Trafikverket provided two different sources of information about the pavement...

Beyond terminology: which contracting features promote innovation

Two opposing contracting forms in construction are DB (Design and build) and DBB (Design - bid - build).  The  first  one  provides  the  contractor  degrees  of  freedom  in  design,  which  enables innovation. DBB is the safe and traditional...

Regelförändringar i transportsektorn – effekter av omregleringar inom inrikesflyg, taxi,...

Konkurrensverket (the Swedish Competition Authority) has commissioned the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI) to provide an overview of the consequences of four regulatory reforms in the transport sector during the past 20...

Systemfel i transportsektorn

This report comprises two separate but related reports. The first was commissioned by the Swedish Fiscal Policy Council and identifies three systematic failures with respect to infrastructure decisions. The first is that the price charged for using...

Comparing Three Models for Introduction of Competition into Railways

This paper compares three European countries with long experience of competition in rail transport— Britain, Sweden, and Germany. Given the nature of the reforms undertaken, we would expect theBritish approach to be the most successful, with Sweden...

Marknadsöppning – och sen?: Samhällsekonomisk analys av förutsättningarna för en stärkt...

Swedens market for public transport, both bus and rail, was opened for entry in January 2012. Any fit, willing and able operator is entitled to provide services on a commercial basis. During the first year after market opening, little has happened....

Kollektivtrafikens roll för regeringens mål om fossiloberoende fordonsflotta

The Swedish government has an ambition to make its vehicle fleet independent of fossil fuels by 2030. As a platform for a strategy, the government has appointed a committee which is instructed to consider which policy instruments may be used to...

The Liberalisation of Railway Passenger Transport in Sweden

The purpose of this paper is to describe Sweden’s recent reforms to open the railway passenger markets to entry, and to address how the reforms have handled four critical issues for the success of the reforms: the allocation of infrastructure...

Procurement and contract design in the construction industry: ... not one size fits all

This paper considers the choice between different approaches to contract for the construction and maintenance of infrastructure projects. The need to control for user costs over the life cycle of an asset is demonstrated to be a core aspect of...

Voluntary Internalization of Speeding Externalities

High speed is an important determinant of accidents for speeders as well as for other motorists. This paper develops a framework for analyzing instruments that encourage drivers to internalize the full consequences of their behavior with respect to...

Fungerar godstransportmarknaden effektivt?: ekonomisk analys av energieffektivisering av...

A large share of Sweden’s aggregate use of energy is used in the transport sector, a third of which is used for freight transport purposes. Excluding the recent downturn in the business cycle, traffic and therefore also the use of energy, increases...

Före och efter: uppföljning av en järnvägsinvestering i Oslo

VTI has been commissioned to make an ex post evaluation of a new double track between Asker and Sandvika to the southwest of Oslo. This is one out of three parcels in a package of railway investments in this area. The decision to implement the...

Fyrstegsprincipen i praktiken: tre underlagsrapporter för Riksrevisionens granskning av...

Sweden’s parliament and its government have access to a number of means for implementing overarching policies, inter alia in the transport sector. There is a broad consensus that the four step principle should provide the basic logic for choice of...

Medfinansiering av transportinfrastruktur: blev det mer och bättre?

One objective during work with Sweden’s 2010–2021 investment program was to induce local and regional, both public and private, contribution to the financing of investment projects. In this way, it would be feasible to enhance the total volume of...

The liberalization of railway passenger transport in Sweden: outstanding regulatory...

The purpose of this paper is to describe Sweden’s recent reforms to open the railway passenger markets to entry, and to addresses four critical issues for the success of the reforms; the allocation of infrastructure capacity, the provision of...

På spaning efter den innovativa myndigheten

This report makes suggestions for how the government can improve on the monitoring of its agencies and the productivity of its activities. The instrument for doing so is to ascertain a regular review of costs in the contract signed between...

Vart tar pengarna vägen?: om behovet av bättre uppföljning för ökad effektivitet i...

It is possible to enhance the cost effectiveness of infrastructure investments in the public sector. In this VTI report it is also stated that the costs for implementing a system which would facilitate the identification of successes and failures...

Ownership of real estate and terminals in a railway industry with open entry

Operators that wish to compete for passengers and freight consignments on railway market with free entry requires access to terminals and to maintenance facilities at competitive prices. The present paper addresses the appropriate way to provide...

Projekteringsupphandling i nya former: förstudie

This paper describes current practices to tender the projection of infrastructure construction projects and the problems which emanate from these routines. Three approaches to handle these problems are suggested. One method is to increase the use of...

Lessons from the tendering of railway services in Sweden: Are some contracts better than...

Provision of non-commercial railway services in Sweden is the responsibility of regional Public Transport Authorities. In spite of substantial real increases in fares, patronage of subsidised railway services has increased by 4.6 percent per year...

Knapphet på järnväg: sammanställning av två promemorior

The use of market mechanisms for timetabling of trains is discussed in three different time perspectives in the report. Motives for charging for booking and de-registering trains in the upcoming time table is discussed, too. The point of departure...

Comparing three models for introduction of competition into railways: is a Big Wolf so...

This paper compares the experience of three European countries with long experience of competition in rail transport – Britain, Sweden and Germany. Britain is characterised by complete separation of infrastructure from operations, competition either...

Strategi för Transportstyrelsens marknadstillsyn över järnvägssektorn

The purpose of this report is to analyse Transportstyrelsen's (the Swedish Transport Agency´s) remit in it's capacity as rail market regulator and the distribution of responsibilities between the government, Transportstyrelsen and infrastructure...

The value of public private partnerships in infrastructure

This paper makes three claims. First, in contrast to Public-Private Partnerships (PPP) in many other industries, infrastructure contracts can be conditioned on the delivery of roads and railways of appropriate user quality. This eliminates one of...

Implications of cost recovery

Under some circumstances, the marginal cost approach to infrastructure pricing leads to problems with cost recovery; a pricing policy which ensures that existing assets are efficiently used may not deliver revenue to pay for the costs for...

The Arlanda Airport Railway Link: Lessons Learned from a Swedish Construction project.

The Stockholm - Arlanda airport rail link is a public-private partnership opened for traffic in 1999. This paper addresses costs and benefits of giving a private company control over one section of the otherwise public railway network. The project...

An Economic Analysis of Track Maintenance Costs

The costs for maintaining different track units are analyzed using Swedish and Finnish railway data for the years 1994-1996 and 1997-1999, respectively. To derive insights on the logic of spending on track maintenance, the analysis is based on few a...

Taking the Lab to the Field: Experimental Tests of Alternative Mechanisms to Procure...

The first part of the paper reports the results from a sequence of laboratory experiments comparing the bidding behavior for multiple contracts in three different sealed bid auction mechanisms; first-price simultaneous, first-price sequential and...

Granskning av Vägverkets och Banverkets förslag till drift- och underhållsstrategier

The Government has assigned the Swedish Road and Transport Research Institute the task of analysing the content of the proposals for operation and maintenance strategies that the Swedish National Road Administration and Banverket (the Swedish...

Restructuring Sweden's railways: the unintentional deregulation

In 1988, Sweden made a vertical cut in its nationalised railway monopoly; since then, infrastructure is handled by a public-sector agency while trains initially were run by a government-owned monopolist. This paper seeks to describe this...

An Experimental Comparison of Track Allocation Mechanisms in the Railway Industry

The capacity of railway tracks is a scarce commodity that is, by nature, more complex than many other commodities. This paper presents results from a series of economic testbed experiments on the performance of different auctioning mechanisms for...

Restructuring Sweden’s Railways: The Unintentional Deregulation

In 1988, Sweden made a vertical cut in its nationalised railway monopoly; since then, infrastructure is handled by a public-sector agency while trains were initially run by a government-owned monopolist. This paper seeks to describe this...

Towards a Welfare Enhancing Process to Manage Railway Infrastructure Access

The European Commission has suggested that the use of scarce railway track capacity should be charged for on a marginal cost basis and that a welfare enhancing procedure to allocate capacity between competing operators is to be implemented. The...

Allocation of track capacity: Experimental Evidence on the Use of Priority Auctioning in...

Allocation of track capacity concerns multiple users facing demand indivisibilities, running trains over an inelastic supply of railway tracks. The paper suggests a Vickrey-type mechanism to handle incentive aspects of this technically complex...

Railway Timetabling Using Lagrangian Relaxation

We present a novel optimization approach for the timetabling problem of a railway company, i.e., scheduling of a set of trains to obtain a profit maximizing timetable, while not violating track capacity constraints. The scheduling decisions are...

Swedish Railways Case Study


Second Best Problems in Railroad Infrastructure Pricing and Investment

In 1988 the Swedish nationalised railway company was separated into the State Railways, in charge of running rail transport, and the National Rail Administration, responsible for investment in and maintenance of rail infrastructure. The separation...