Christopher Patten


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Research results from Christopher


Health Promotion Intervention On Rural Roads In Sweden: A Case Study Of Cycling Safety

PURPOSE: In Sweden, as well as in many countries in Scandinavia and in northern Europe, there is a growing trend to allocate the daily exercise routines to cycling and walking in the form of work commuting. This has led to an increase of bikers with...

Hjulburna oskyddade trafikanter på landsväg

The background to this collection of three sub-studies; 1) Two-minus-one bicycle lanes on rural roads, 2) How close is close? and 3) Pilot study on road friction testing for motorcycles, is to highlight any problems that two-wheeled unprotected road...

A behavioural study of quadbike drivers

As quadbikes are becoming more and more common in Sweden the number of accidents also increases. The first aim of this study was therefore to increase our knowledge of how and where quadbikes are used, the mistakes and violations drivers make and...

Interior tunnel design and road traffic safety

Maintaining high levels of road traffic safety is always important and when the road is in a tunnel, and especially in a long tunnel, maintaining the highest possible level of safety is paramount. In Sweden, the Stockholm Bypass tunnel (FFS), has...

Vägtjänster i Europa: intervjuer med vägmyndigheter

The assignment was to map how other national road authorities in Europe use – describe, implement and follow up – on the term and concept of a road service. After a literature study, eight European countries (Cyprus, Finland, Iceland, Norway,...

Estimated time of arrival and debiasing the time saving bias

The time saving bias predicts that the time saved when increasing speed from a high speed is overestimated, and underestimated when increasing speed from a slow speed. In a questionnaire, time saving judgements were investigated when information of...

Estimated Time of Arrival and Debiasing the Time Saving Bias

The time saving bias predicts that the time saved when increasing speed from a high speed is overestimated, and underestimated when increasing speed from a slow speed. In a questionnaire, time saving judgements were investigated when information of...

Fyrhjulingsförares beteenden och felhandlingar

As quadbikes are becoming more and more common the number of accidents also increases. The first aim of this project was therefore to increase our knowledge of the accidents whilst the second aim was to increase our knowledge of how and where...

Syns jag bättre med en gul plexiglasskiva framför strålkastaren?: en studie om...

Approximately half of the motorcyclists that are killed or injured occur when interacting with other vehicle-users. These accidents are typically intersection, head-on or rear-end collisions. A contributing factor to these collisions can be the...

Tekniska system: krav vid införande av ny teknik i förarmiljöer inom alla trafikslag

The purpose of this project was to study vehicle rules, regulations, directives and standards pertaining the development and introduction of technically advanced driver/operator support systems for all mode of transport, commissioned by the Swedish...

Dynamiska farthinder: en litteraturstudie

To mitigate the negative consequences from rigid speed humps, several alternative solutions have emerged on the market, so called dynamic speed humps. The dynamic speed humps can be classified into passive or active humps, respectively. This means...

Effects of phone type on driving and eye glance behaviour while text-messaging

This study examined whether phone interface - touch screen keyboard vs. numeric keypad - moderates the impact of sending and receiving text messages on simulated driving performance and eye glance behaviour. The high visual-manual demands of text...

Stockholm bypass tunnel – merging traffic study: technical report

The Stockholm bypass (Förbifart Stockholm) project is a new road project that will create a bypass of central Stockholm. The entire project includes motorways, bridges and two tunnels, one of which will be 16.5 km. The Stockholm bypass is the...

Dangerous use of mobile phones and other communication devices while driving: A toolbox...

The use of mobile phone and similar devices while driving has been a topic of discussion and research for several years. It is now an established fact that driving performance is deteriorated due to distraction but no clear conclusions can yet be...

Driver distraction in an unusual environment: effects of text-messaging in tunnels

The use of mobile phones and other portable devices while driving can be distracting and significantly increases the risk of being involved in a collision. Compared to highway driving, driving in a tunnel environment introduces additional factors...

Effects of electronic billboards on driver distraction.

OBJECTIVE: There is an increase in electronic advertising billboards along major roads, which may cause driver distraction due to the highly conspicuous design of the electronic billboards. Yet limited research on the impact of electronic billboards...

Interior Tunnel Design and Traffic Safety Aspects

Maintaining high levels of road traffic safety is always important and when the road is in a tunnel, and especially in a long tunnel, maintaining the highest possible level of safety is paramount. In Sweden, the Stockholm Bypass tunnel (FFS), has...

Why Sweden should not do as everybody else does

Sweden is the only country in Europe that does not outlaw handheld phone use while driving. This puts some political pressure on Sweden. The Swedish Government commissioned VTI to conduct a literature review on the effects of mobile communication on...

Countermeasures against dangerous use of communication devices while driving –: a toolbox

This report outlines possible means to reduce the dangerous usage of mobile phones and other communication devices while driving. An important aspect of this commission was to demonstrate alternatives to legislation. The suggested countermeasures...

Förbifart Stockholm: utvärdering av ett gestaltningsförslag för tunnel

The Stockholm Bypass (FFS) tunnel has been scheduled to commence construction in 2013 and will pass on the western side of Stockholm city centre. The tunnel will be approximately 18 km in length and the interior design is expected to affect the...

Measuring driver impairments: Sleepiness, distraction, and workload

Snow was falling heavily when Sarah was driving on a slippery road to her cousin’s country cottage. It was dark outside, and the visibility was poor. She had planned to arrive before sunset, but the rental service had made a mistake, and it took...

Åtgärder mot trafikfarlig användning av kommunikationsutrustning under körning: en...

This report outlines possible means to reduce the dangerous usage of mobile phones and other communication devices while driving, while at the same time preserve the positive effects. The suggested countermeasures cover several areas and are...

Inverkan av elektroniska reklamskyltar på trafiksäkerhet: en studie på E4 i Stockholm

The present report presents four studies that were conducted with the aim to evaluate how electronic billboards (ERS) affect traffic safety. Study 1 is a literature review to examine how billboards impact road safety. The conclusions from the review...

Mobile telephones and other communication devices and their impact on traffic safety: a...

VTI was commissioned by the Swedish Government to compile relevant research on mobile phone and other communication device usage whilst driving. Thus, a sub-set of those activities that can distract a driver in traffic are treated in the...

Driver workload in simulated road tunnels: possible implications for ITS applications...

The main purpose of this study is to measure the impact of environment factors of simulated road tunnels on driver performance. Perceptual cues in the tunnel environment are manipulated in order to evaluate performance measures and examine possible...

Trötthet vid ratten: kunskapsläget 2010

Fatigue or sleepiness associated with driving is a problem that generates crashes and injuries in traffic. Driver sleepiness can mainly be traced to the fact that drivers have not slept enough, have been awake for too long or that driving takes...