Astrid Linder


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Research results from Astrid


A female head–neck model for rear impact simulations

Several mathematical cervical models of the 50th percentile male have been developed and used for impact biomechanics research. However, for the 50th percentile female no similar modelling efforts have been made, despite females being subject to a...

Fatally injured cyclists in Sweden 2005–2015: analysis of accident circumstances,...

Cycling is part of the sustainable transport system and plans are in place to increase this part of the transport system in Sweden, Europe as well as globally. Improving the safety for this group of roadusers is of great importance. The aim of this...

A Female Ligamentous Cervical Spine Finite Element Model Validated for Physiological Loads

Mathematical cervical spine models allow for studying of impact loading that can cause whiplash associated disorders (WAD). However, existing models only cover the male anthropometry, despite the female population being at a higher risk of...

Average male and female virtual dummy model (BioRID and EvaRID) simulations with two seat...

Soft tissue neck injuries, also referred to as whiplash injuries, which can lead to long term suffering accounts for more than 60% of the cost of all injuries leading to permanent medical impairment for the insurance companies, with respect to...

Simulations with average male and female dummy models with two seat concepts in the Euro...

Soft tissue neck injuries, also referred to as whiplash injuries, which can lead to long term suffering are most common in rear impacts. These injuries account for more than 60% of the cost of all injuries leading to permanent medical impairment for...

Aiming for an average female virtual human body model for seat performance assessment in...

The female part of the population suffers more Whiplash Associated Disorders (WAD) in car crashes than males. Several studies have illustrated the need to consider the female population when developing and assessing the WAD prevention performance of...

Anthropometric Specifications, Development, and Evaluation of EvaRID: A 50th Percentile...

Objectives: Whiplash-associated disorders (WADs), or whiplash injuries, due to low-severity vehicle crashes are of great concern in motorized countries and it is well established that the risk of such injuries is higher for females than for males,...

Review of Swedish experiences concerning analysis of people injured in traffic accidents

This report provides a review of Swedish experiences concerning the national road traffic accident information system STRADA (Swedish Traffic Accident Data Acquisition). STRADA contains information on accidents occurring in the Swedish road...

ADSEAT - Adaptive Seat to Reduce Neck Injuries for Female and Male Occupants

Neck injuries sustained in low severity vehicle crashes are of worldwide concern and the risk is higher for females than for males. The objective of the study was to provide guidance on how to evaluate protective performance of vehicle seat designs...

Occupant diversity in modelling and evaluation related to soft tissue neck injuries in...

It is well established that the risk of soft tissue neck injuries (or whiplash associated disorders) is higher for females than for males, even in similar crash conditions. Injury statistics from the mid 1960´s until today all show that females have...

EvaRID: A 50th percentile female rear impact finite element dummy model

Neck injury due to low severity vehicle crashes is of worldwide concern and the injury risk is greater for females than males. However, whiplash protection systems have shown to be more beneficial for males than females. Hence there is a need for...

Influence of gender, height, weight, age, seated position and collision site related to...

Rear end vehicle collisions can result in occupants suffering neck pain symptoms of varying degree and duration. These injuries are generally called whiplash injuries and they are common and costly. This study analyses the occurance and duration of...

Motion of the Head and Neck of Female and Male Volunteers in Rear Impact Car-to-Car...

Objectives: The objectives of this study were to quantify and compare dynamic motion responses between 50th percentile female and male volunteers in rear impact tests. These data are fundamental for developing future occupant models for crash safety...

Seat testing to investigate the female neck injury risk: preliminary results using a new...

Dynamic performance tests are conducted to assess the neck injury risk. To date seats are assessed based on sled tests mostly using a BioRID which is based on the 50%ile male anthropometry. Since females sustain whiplash associated disorders (WAD)...

Dynamic kinematic responses of female volunteers in rear impacts and comparison to...

Objectives: The objective was to quantify dynamic responses of 50th percentile females in rear impacts and compare to those from similar tests with males. The results will serve as a basis for future work with models, criteria, and safety...

EvaRID: Anthropometric and biomechanical specification of a finite element dummy model of...

Neck injury due to low severity vehicle crashes is of worldwide concern and it is well established that the risk of such injuries are higher for females than for males, even in similar crash conditions. In addition, recently developed protective...

Motion of the head and neck of female and male volunteers in rear impact car-to-car tests...

In this study indications of differences in motion pattern of females and males have been found. The objective was to quantify dynamic motion responses of female and male volunteers in rear impact tests. Such data can be used as an input in the...

BioRID II manikin and human seating position in relation to car head restraint

The objective of the study was to compare stature, weight and backset (the horizontal distance (x) between the back of the occupant’s head and the front of the seam on top of the head restraint) of the Biofidelic Rear Impact Dummy (BioRID II) to the...

Dynamic responses of female and male volunteers in rear impacts

Objectives: Whiplash injuries from vehicle collisions are common and costly. These injuries most frequently occur as a result of a rear impact and, compared to males, females have up to twice the risk of whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) resulting...

Female volunteer motion in rear impact sled tests in comparison to results from earlier...

Vehicle related crashes causing neck injuries (whiplash) are costly and common, and injury statistic data shows a larger risk of neck injuries for females than for males. This study aims at investigating differences between female and male dynamic...

Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) in passenger cars and methods for assessment of...

The background for this study is that many Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) are currently introduced in passenger vehicles aiming at providing increased traffic safety. This provides a need to assess the traffic safety effects from these systems....

Design and validation of the neck for a rear impact dummy (BioRID I)

To assess the protective performance of seats and head restraints, occupant models able to mimic the motion of a human in a crash are needed. Hence, a new mechanical dummy neck for low-velocity rear collision tests was developed. The dummy neck...

Evaluation of the BioRID P3 and the hybrid III in pendulum impacts to the back: A...

Crash test dummies able to mimic the motion of a human are needed to assess the protective performance of seats and head restraints in crash tests. This study evaluates both a newly developed dummy for rear impacts (BioRID P3) and the Hybrid III...

Dynamic performances of different seat designs for low to medium velocity rear impact.

There is good evidence that seat design and impact severities in terms of delta-V and acceleration plays a role in AIS 1 neck injury outcomes in the event of a rear impact. This study evaluates a number of current production seats to assess the AIS...

Neck injuries in rear impacts: Dummy neck development, dummy evaluation and test...

The objective of the work underlying this thesis was firstly to develop a neck for a new rear impact dummy, to evaluate the complete dummy and to specify test conditions for a consumer test with attention to AIS 1 neck injuries in rear impacts. In...

A new mathematical neck model for a low-velocity rear-end impact dummy: Evaluation of...

A mathematical model of a new rear-end impact dummy neck was implemented using MADYMO. The main goal was to design a model with a human-like response of the first extension motion in the crash event. The new dummy neck was modelled as a series of...

Evaluation of the BioRID P3 and the Hybrid III in pendulum impacts to the back: a...

The BioRID P3 (Biofidelic Rear Impact Dummy) and the Hybrid III were evaluated in pendulum impacts to the back and compared to data from previous cadaver tests. The test setup impacting seated cadavers was reproduced with a pendulum impacting seated...

The New Neck Design for the Rear-End Impact Dummy, BioRID I

A new mechanical neck was developed for a new dummy possessing a complete articulated spine, for low speed rear-end collisions. The new neck consists of seven cervical elements connected by hinge joints. The neck stiffness properties were created by...