Urban air quality: The challenge of traffic non-exhaust emissions

Publisher's full text
Fulvio Amato
Flemming R. Cassee
Hugo A. C. Denier van der Gon
Robert Gehrig
Wolfgang Hafner
Roy M. Harrison
Magdalena Jozwicka
Frank J. Kelly
Teresa Moreno
Andre S. H. Prevot
Martijn Schaap
Jordi Sunyer
Xavier Querol

About 400,000 premature adult deaths attributable to air pollution occur each year in the European Region. Road transport emissions account for a significant share of this burden. While important technological improvements have been made for reducing particulate matter (PM) emissions from motor exhausts, no actions are currently in place to reduce the non-exhaust part of emissions such as those from brake wear, road wear, tyre wear and road dust resuspension. These "non-exhaust" sources contribute easily as much and often more than the tailpipe exhaust to the ambient air PM concentrations in cities, and their relative contribution to ambient PM is destined to increase in the future, posing obvious research and policy challenges.This review highlights the major and more recent research findings in four complementary fields of research and seeks to identify the current gaps in research and policy with regard to non-exhaust emissions. The objective of this article is to encourage and direct future research towards an improved understanding on the relationship between emissions, concentrations, exposure and health impact and on the effectiveness of potential remediation measures in the urban environment.

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