Tunga fordons däckanvändning: effekter vid is/snöväglag

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Gudrun Öberg
Olle Nordström
Carl-Gustaf Wallman
Mats Wiklund
Peter Wretling

The following subprojects were included in the investigation into whether the use of winter tyres on heavy vehicles should be a legal requirement in Sweden: • A literary study. • A survey of heavy vehicle tyres, their quality and use. • Gripping power on ice. • Driving properties. • An accident survey. • Economic consequences of a legal requirement. The literary study showed the importance of having good quality tyres of the right type. The project then went on to examine the gripping power on ice of a range of tyres. Studded tyres had the best gripping power. Sipes (transverse cuts in the tyre tread) contribute to good sliding friction properties in unstudded tyres. There were considerable differences in friction properties of the best and worst quality unstudded tyres. Stability, steering and braking properties were studied in test drives on an ice-covered airfield. Studded winter tyres on all wheels delivered far greater braking capacity than unstudded tyres on all wheels. New winter tyres provided much greater braking capacity than half worn summer tyres. There was no significant difference between the alternatives as regards lateral evasion maneuver capacity during optimal steering. When vehicles were undergoing inspection at the test station, questionnaires were distributed to all heavy vehicle drivers at selected locations across the country. The questionnaires indicate that winter tyres are primarily used on the wheels on the driving axel (approximately 60%). Summer tyres are most frequently used on the wheels on the front axles and trailers. The use of studded tyres is low. Accident data from the National Swedish Road Administration has been supplemented by sending out questionnaires to heavy vehicle owners involved in accidents during the winter of 1998-99. The results do not make it possible to draw any conclusions regarding improved levels of road safety should winter tyres be used in icy and snowy road conditions. Studies of gripping power on ice and driving properties show that if driver behaviour did not change with tyre selection, the change from summer to winter tyres would enhance road safety on icy and snowy roads. This means that after this investigation there can be no argument for introducing a legal requirement regarding the use of winter tyres for heavy vehicles. Heavy vehicle tyres should however be improved so that they have the same gripping power as the tyres of light vehicles.

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