Styrmedelsinventering: delstudie inom SAMKOST


This report takes stock and describes policy instruments that affect the extent of the various externalities arising from transport; noise, impact on infrastructure (both planning new infrastructure and consumption phase), climate, air pollution, traffic safety, congestion and impact on water. The analysis of policy instruments covers all four transport modes: road, rail, maritime and air transport. The description begins with a review of related international agreements and EU regulations. It then discusses domestic policy measures. The point of departure in this discussion is whether a policy instrument affects the marginal cost of an activity or not.

It is difficult to link a specific policy instruments to specific external effects, even though there is such a link in the instrument's design. The reason for this is that all policy instruments that affect the volume of traffic also by definition  influence all the externalities that arise. The report is nevertheless arranged so that every policy instrument is coupled to the external effect that it primarily aims at.

The report also contains an overview of policy instruments in five neighboring countries: Denmark, Finland, Norway, the UK and Germany. The international overview does not include an examination of the links between external effects and policy instruments but lists and describes the policy instruments on the basis of the transport mode they affect.



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