SJÖSAM – sjöfartens samhällsekonomiska marginalkostnader: förstudie inom SAMKOST

Anna Mellin
Christopher Creutzer

The purpose of this report was to analyse which marginal costs are relevant and how they should be considered for maritime transports. The report is a pre-study for the sub-project Maritime transports’ socioeconomic marginal cost (Sjösam) within VTI’s governmental assignment on socioeconomic marginal costs in the transport sector (Samkost). The report focus on following marginal costs; infrastructure wear and tear, air pollution, greenhouse gases, noise, safety, and other marine externalities (i.e. water pollution, sedimentation pollution, erosion and loss of habitat and biodiversity). A clear picture that arises from the literature study is that it’s mostly the maritime transports’ emissions of air pollution and greenhouse gases that have been studied. It is also mainly for those two externalities that marginal costs have been estimated. The results from the literature study have given the following conclusions: • The marginal costs we suggest should be considered for updates are pilotage, ice breaking, air pollution and greenhouse gases, based on their relative size in Sweden. • More research, beyond the scope of this project, is needed before it’s possible to state if the marginal costs of noise and marine impact are relevant or not for maritime transports from a marginal costs perspective. • The literature on maritime safety suggests relatively low marginal costs. But more aspects than just life and health, which are the only effects considered in the current Swedish CBA guidelines (ASEK), constitute large costs for maritime accidents (e.g. environmental costs and costs for the industry). Therefore we considered this area to be a prioritized research field. • For some external effects it’s very difficult to calculate the risks since they are very low, such as invasion of alien species and large oil spills, but can lead to large consequences. It’s still important to assess the impact from maritime transport on these issues to locate the relevant impact sources and how it’s possible to estimate the external costs in safe systems where the probability for an accident is very low. • Differentiation is viewed as relevant for ice-breaking (both time and geographically) and air pollution (geographically). For air pollution and greenhouse gases a differentiation depending on type of ship is also relevant. • Marginal cost associated with ports should be treated separately, and for maritime transports the marginal costs should be limited to the ones related to the ships operation. Ports, like other terminals, are nodes for several modes of transports and the marginal costs of ports should not be allocated only to the maritime transports, but rather added to a transport chain.



Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) workshop in Stockholm

An open seminar and workshop in Stockholm will be held on 25-26 April 2018. The workshop deals with the use of CBA as a basis for decision-making in the public sector. The workshop is organized by, among others, Professor Jan-Eric Nilsson, VTI.



Modal shift for an environmental lift?

Investigations in Sweden and other countries suggest a shift of goods transport from road to rail and waterborne transport to reach environmental and climate objectives. VTI is leading a new project to investigate how the modal shift can contribute and what...


Automation and digitalisation are making rail competitive

Road transport is developing rapidly and its productivity has increased sharply. Rail transport, however, has not developed at the same rate. Automation and digitalisation are essential if rail freight in Europe is to survive.


New research is creating a driverless logistics chain

The research project Born to Drive has come up with a system that allows new cars to move, without a driver, from the production line out to the parking area prior to being transported elsewhere. The vision is to automate the entire logistics chain from...


VTI testing automation in EU project

VTI is leading a series of tests in a major EU project on automated driving. The first driving tests were carried out n a test track in Slovenia in December. The project will focus in part on acceptance among different groups in society, in part on...


Freight transportation on road and rail analysed

Freight transport accounts for a large proportion of the emissions, noise and congestion produced by road traffic. Transporting freight in larger but fewer lorries could reduce the problem. At the same time it might entail freight being diverted from more...


Millions for research into maritime transport and the environment

Maritime transport is a major source of emissions of harmful air pollutants and carbon dioxide. In a new project, a research team from the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI) and the University of Gothenburg has received SEK 6.4...