SJÖSAM – sjöfartens samhällsekonomiska marginalkostnader: förstudie inom SAMKOST

Anna Mellin
Christopher Creutzer

The purpose of this report was to analyse which marginal costs are relevant and how they should be considered for maritime transports. The report is a pre-study for the sub-project Maritime transports’ socioeconomic marginal cost (Sjösam) within VTI’s governmental assignment on socioeconomic marginal costs in the transport sector (Samkost). The report focus on following marginal costs; infrastructure wear and tear, air pollution, greenhouse gases, noise, safety, and other marine externalities (i.e. water pollution, sedimentation pollution, erosion and loss of habitat and biodiversity). A clear picture that arises from the literature study is that it’s mostly the maritime transports’ emissions of air pollution and greenhouse gases that have been studied. It is also mainly for those two externalities that marginal costs have been estimated. The results from the literature study have given the following conclusions: • The marginal costs we suggest should be considered for updates are pilotage, ice breaking, air pollution and greenhouse gases, based on their relative size in Sweden. • More research, beyond the scope of this project, is needed before it’s possible to state if the marginal costs of noise and marine impact are relevant or not for maritime transports from a marginal costs perspective. • The literature on maritime safety suggests relatively low marginal costs. But more aspects than just life and health, which are the only effects considered in the current Swedish CBA guidelines (ASEK), constitute large costs for maritime accidents (e.g. environmental costs and costs for the industry). Therefore we considered this area to be a prioritized research field. • For some external effects it’s very difficult to calculate the risks since they are very low, such as invasion of alien species and large oil spills, but can lead to large consequences. It’s still important to assess the impact from maritime transport on these issues to locate the relevant impact sources and how it’s possible to estimate the external costs in safe systems where the probability for an accident is very low. • Differentiation is viewed as relevant for ice-breaking (both time and geographically) and air pollution (geographically). For air pollution and greenhouse gases a differentiation depending on type of ship is also relevant. • Marginal cost associated with ports should be treated separately, and for maritime transports the marginal costs should be limited to the ones related to the ships operation. Ports, like other terminals, are nodes for several modes of transports and the marginal costs of ports should not be allocated only to the maritime transports, but rather added to a transport chain.



International Conference on Electric Road Systems starts today

Electric Road Systems (ERS) is a relatively new concept with many initiatives on the way. To learn from each other and stimulate new collaborations the Swedish Research and Innovation Platform for Electric Roads arranged the first international conference...


Same survey of road users’ attitudes in 50 countries

At the Road Safety on Five Continents Conference, RS5C, one entire session presented a large survey of road users' attitudes in 38 countries. Results show large differences between countries in many areas, both regarding behavior and attitudes. A new survey...


Good results with alcohol interlock program according to Swedish study

An alcohol interlock program makes it possible for drink driving offenders to continue their everyday lives. In a Swedish study most of the participants were satisfied with the program and experienced improved health. They also reported drinking alcohol more...


Traffic safety in the spotlight

Today the Conference Road Safety on Five Continents (RS5C) opened in Jeju Island, South Korea. More than 220 participators have come from all over the world to present findings and learn about traffic safety. Dr. Young Tae Kim, Secretary-General of the...


VTI will develop simulators for ambulance staff

VTI has initiated a pilot study for paramedics with the Centre for Teaching & Research in Disaster Medicine and Traumatology and Linköping University. The aim is to give ambulance staff the opportunity to practice critical medical tasks in a moving vehicle in...


Unique electrified road opens in Sweden

The world’s first electrified road recharging the batteries of cars and trucks while driving opened in Sweden. The Swedish Minister for Infrastructure, Tomas Eneroth, was at the formal inauguration of the electrified road on April 11, 2018. VTI is one of 22...