Sjöfartens policyrelevanta samhällsekonomiska marginalkostnader

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The report aims to identify and as far as possible, quantify the policy-relevant (external) short-term marginal social costs of the use of the national maritime infrastructure and the external costs that maritime transport cause. The (internal) marginal costs of personnel, fuel, depreciation, etcetera are not calculated.

The marginal social costs related to the maintenance of the fairways and congestion are assessed to be negligible and knowledge regarding noise and other marine external costs are considered too limited to be able to quantify the relevant marginal social costs. The marginal social costs related to piloting and icebreaking are based on data from the Maritime Administration for 2014 (piloting), and 2010−2015 (icebreaking). The marginal social costs of air pollution (at the regional level) caused by passenger and cargo ships as well as pilot boats and icebreakers, have been derived by calculating the fuel consumption and the amount of emissions and applying the Impact Pathway approach. The costs of greenhouse gases are, as for the other modes of transport, based on Carlén (2014). The calculation of the marginal social costs of accidents is based on the Swedish Transport Agency’s accident database for the period 1985−2014 and the monetary values of deaths and injuries recommended by the Swedish CBA guidelines. Different needs for development are identified.

The Maritime Administration’s revenues of pilot fees and fairway dues in 2014, cover 76 percent, respective 90 percent of the calculated marginal social costs of pilotage, icebreaking, accidents, air pollution (at the regional level) and greenhouse gases. We see a need to study in detail how the cost estimates can be used to make the policy measures for maritime transport and in the entire transport sector more efficient.

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