SAMKOST 2: redovisning av regeringsuppdrag kring trafikens samhällsekonomiska kostnader

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In December 2012, the government commissioned VTI to update the social marginal costs for using infrastructure for all modes of transport based on state-of-the-art knowledge in the research community. A final report was submitted in December 2013 and shortly after, the government extended VTIs commission. The present report summarizes the results of the extended mission. In the same way as in SAMKOST 1, the taxation of fuel is substantially higher than the costs generated by passenger cars that use the road network. It is also concluded that heavy vehicles are charged less than the costs inflicted by using roads.

Users of railway infrastructure are charged track user charges which are below marginal costs for using tracks.

Estimates of the marginal costs emanating from merchant shipping include piloting, icebreaking and accident risks, all emanating from the activities of the Swedish Maritime Administration. A new study of emissions from shipping is part of the background work within SAMKOST 2. Overall, current levels of fees charged by the Swedish Maritime Administration is well below the industry’s costs.

There are no indications that landings and take-offs at airports have consequences for the need for maintenance and renewal of runways. The marginal costs of aviation are primarily related to emissions and noise. Charges for national flights may be fairly close to marginal costs while costs for European and in particular inter-continental flights are substantially higher than the different types of charges levied. It is, however, important to emphasize that conclusions regarding shipping and in particular aviation are less certain than when the comparison concerns road and railway charges relative to marginal costs.

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