Samhällsekonomiska effekter med en kombitransport: beräkningar på järnvägsvagnen Flexiwaggon

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In Sweden and the EU, there is a stated need to combine more freight transports on road with railway. The aim is to reduce emissions of climate gases, as well as noise and other external effects such as congestion, accidents and wear and tear of the road. New innovations and transport solutions can be necessary to increase the number of combined road and railway freight transports. The transport solution analyzed in this study is a new railway wagon that can transport trucks at the speed of 160 km/h. The purpose of the study is to calculate the economic effects the new railway wagon can generate if it is used on a route where rail can be a viable alternative to road transport. In this, the environment and energy effects are studied, as well as the commercial cost.

To define the contestable market between transport modes in a certain situation can be a challenging task, as there are many – and often interacting – factors that determine the mode choice. However, the literature states that route distance and the characteristics of the goods being transported are crucial factors for mode choice, where examples of the characteristics of goods are its value, damage sensitivity, time sensitivity, and weight (these can to a large extent be captured by the type of good). Freight transport on rail are often considered to be a viable approach on distances over 300 kilometres. In this study, we use three project cases with the route distances 280, 420 and 670 kilometres. We assume that distinct groups of goods are transported, as this will have an impact on the calculations.

The base cases (with the abbreviation JA in the study) comprises road transport carried out by trucks with a trailer. A major part of the distance in the project cases (abbreviated UA) is covered by trains on which the trucks have been loaded. There are no truck drivers on the train transport.

The environment and energy effects (exclusive noise) are calculated using a tool provided by the Network for Transport Measures (NTM). Differences in carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter are presented, where the project cases have lower emissions than the base cases. Moreover, a lower amount of energy is consumed in the project cases compared to the base cases.

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