Säkerhetsrisker kopplat till däck, fälg och hjul: en litteraturstudie

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Håkan Andersson

A literature review about the road safety effects associated with tires, rims and wheels was carried out, where the literature search was done in consultation with the VTI Library and information centre. The outcome resulted in approximately 90 different references, most of which refer to research articles in peer reviewed journals, but also some independent reports and books. A clear distinction was made with slip-related accidents related to winter conditions and different types of snow tires/tire characteristics not included in the study. Furthermore, only the type of accidents that occurs during vehicle operation was treated, which means that work accidents occurring during a service are not included in the study.

There is not much research published on the rim effect on road safety, and a U.S. accident investigator believes that the wheels generally are extremely reliable. Of the anomalies that can occur for the wheel as a whole, loosening of the wheel is the most serious. The studies that we found dealing with wheel imbalance only apply to comfort problems and increased road wear. Different wheel alignment will affect a vehicle's handling, but we have not found any study that has related this to road safety. For tires, we found no research on how different tire sizes and brands mounted on a vehicle affect its safety. Several studies show that there is a risk involved with mounting new tires on the front axle and worn tires on the rear axle. There is a consensus that during the replacement of two tires, the new tires should always be positioned on the rear axle, regardless if the vehicle is front or rear wheel driven. A number of studies show how the tread depth affects the wet grip during braking, and how the tires with less than 3 mm tread depth lose about half of the available friction compared to new tires.

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