Överstyrning på is och snö med olika vinterdäck: metodutveckling och fältstudie

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Håkan Andersson

Traffic accidents during winter time are to a larger extent categorized by loss of vehicle control resulting in a skidding accident, compared to accidents occurring summer time. In a study by the Swedish Transport Administration, it was shown that for fatal accidents happening winter time, skidding had occurred in 64 per cent of the accidents on winter road conditions. Out of these, 82 per cent were so called over steering accidents, i.e. events where the vehicle starts to spin.

The purpose of this study was to develop av method for testing a vehicle's stability during oversteering on slippery roadways, and to use this method to test how large the difference is between different kinds of winter tyres on ice and snow.

A test method based on NTHSA's sine-with-dwell manoueuvre was developed. The manouevre uses a steering robot and induces heavy oversteering on slippery surfaces, such as ice and snow.

The manouevre was then used with an ESC equipped rear-wheel driven passenger car, fitted with both new and worn winter tyres of the three different kinds that are available in Sweden, to compare the level of oversteering that is possible to obtain with a steering manouevre on different ice and snow surfaces. The results show that studded tyres are more stable than unstudded on smooth ice. Even the worn studded tyre, with only a fraction of the studs remaining, is performing well compared to the unstudded tyres, and is comparable to a new unstudded winter tyre of Nordic type and much better than the tyres of Central European type. The winter tyres of Central European type stand out as those generating most oversteering on this surface. On surfaces with higher friction level, the tyres with least grip are also those that generate least oversteering, which makes it difficult to discuss these results in terms of traffic safety.

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