Organization of pilot and icebreaking in the Nordic countries and update of the external costs of sea transports in Sweden: a report in SAMKOST 3

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The Swedish government has commissioned VTI to review current knowledge of the external costs for all modes of transport. This report is the third part of the government commission (Samkost 3), it addresses sea transports where the access to data and the knowledge level is generally lower than for the land-based modes. One finding in the government commission 2016 (Samkost 2) was that the possibilities to apply the external cost estimates for pricing are rather limited in the existing organizational structures. This report comprises two parts. Part 1 addresses the organization models of piloting and icebreaking in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. The Nordic countries have chosen different organization models to provide these services that can influence the capacity and service levels, the cost structure, the cost effectiveness and the pricing of the services. Part 2 updates the costs of pilot and icebreaking services and the external costs related to traffic safety, greenhouse gases and air pollution caused by sea transports in Swedish waters from Samkost 2 (2014 prices and valuations) to Samkost 3 (2017 prices and valuations). The calculated total external costs per year are lower in Samkost 3 than in Samkost 2: about five percent in the low alternative and about ten percent in the high alternative. This implies that the internalization is about 100 percent which is higher than in Samkost 2. The external costs caused by the transports in international waters are probably are internalized to a low extent and national and international policies are needed to reach e.g. national and international climate objectives.

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