Miljömål och mått avseende landskap inom väg- och järnvägsplaneringen: sammanställning och analys av skrivningar från sex länder

Lennart Folkeson
Hans Antonson

here is a lack of well defined environmental goals for the countryside in foreign literature. Similarly, there are few means of measuring the natural and cultural values of the countryside. This has been found in a review of goals and measures in the literature on road and railway planning in Finland, Denmark, Norway, the Netherlands, the UK and Canada. The work also indicates the need for research and development focusing on:– developing methods for identifying and evaluating the collective natural and cultural values of the countryside,– further developing countryside-oriented environmental goals for different planning levels which take into account the entire landscape instead of being limited to individual areas of interest,– developing relevant indicators and traceable measures for the environmental goals,– integrating the environmental goals in the EIA (Environmental Impact Assessment) in the transport sector,– studying the consequences of the recently introduced environmental legislation in Sweden.Goals are often expressed in very general terms. The most exact formulations are found in the literature from the UK and Norway. Descriptions of goals are more commonly found for the natural environment than for the cultural environment, but in some cases both are included in the same text. Few goals are provided with measures, which makes follow-up difficult. Landscape-oriented environmental goals are more common for planning new infrastructure projects than for actions involving the existing infrastructure. The goals for the existing infrastructure are often oriented towards the cultural environment, in particular the cultural values of the infrastructure. The small number of goals concerning the existing infrastructure indicates a problem since the volume of the existing infrastructure is much larger than that of the planned infrastructure. The aim of the project is to analyse foreign descriptions of environmental goals and measures for the landscape and its natural and cultural values. The work is limited to rural conditions and the interest of the natural and cultural environment or preservation schemes, in addition to recreation, outdoor life and tourism. Relevant material has been found in 50 out of about 120 documents studied. The descriptions of the goals have been divided into seven groups: the general environment, the countryside as a whole, the rural scene, the natural environment, the cultural environment, historic sites, recreation areas. The formulations have been processed from three aspects: a) the degree of concreteness in the actions or the degree of active adoption of standpoints required from decision makers; b) whether the goals apply to existing or planned infrastructure; c) intended decision level. The work is intended to constitute an aid in the work of the Swedish National Road Administration and the Swedish National Railway Administration for operationalisation of the general environmental goals for transport policy. More precise environmental goals for the countryside will require method development for identification of its natural and cultural values. Measures need to be developed for follow-up purposes. However, the lack of measures and measuring methods should not prevent the creation of environmental goals. The establishment of environmental goals will lead to increased demands on the content of the environmental consequence analyses performed prior to infrastructure projects. This is an important aspect in meeting the high demands of the new Swedish environmental legislation on consideration for the environment.



Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) workshop in Stockholm

An open seminar and workshop in Stockholm will be held on 25-26 April 2018. The workshop deals with the use of CBA as a basis for decision-making in the public sector. The workshop is organized by, among others, Professor Jan-Eric Nilsson, VTI.



Modal shift for an environmental lift?

Investigations in Sweden and other countries suggest a shift of goods transport from road to rail and waterborne transport to reach environmental and climate objectives. VTI is leading a new project to investigate how the modal shift can contribute and what...


Automation and digitalisation are making rail competitive

Road transport is developing rapidly and its productivity has increased sharply. Rail transport, however, has not developed at the same rate. Automation and digitalisation are essential if rail freight in Europe is to survive.


New research is creating a driverless logistics chain

The research project Born to Drive has come up with a system that allows new cars to move, without a driver, from the production line out to the parking area prior to being transported elsewhere. The vision is to automate the entire logistics chain from...


VTI testing automation in EU project

VTI is leading a series of tests in a major EU project on automated driving. The first driving tests were carried out n a test track in Slovenia in December. The project will focus in part on acceptance among different groups in society, in part on...


Freight transportation on road and rail analysed

Freight transport accounts for a large proportion of the emissions, noise and congestion produced by road traffic. Transporting freight in larger but fewer lorries could reduce the problem. At the same time it might entail freight being diverted from more...


Millions for research into maritime transport and the environment

Maritime transport is a major source of emissions of harmful air pollutants and carbon dioxide. In a new project, a research team from the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI) and the University of Gothenburg has received SEK 6.4...