Icke-avgasrelaterade partiklar i vägmiljön: litteraturöversikt

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Non-exhaust particles in the road environment originate from wear of asphalt road pavement and corrosion of vehicle components such as tyres and brakes. Other sources are road maintenance, road equipment and particles originating in the road surroundings. This literature survey aims at giving an overview of the current knowledge about airborne particles from these different sources in the context of characteristics and emissions as well as health and environmental effects.

In Sweden, the wearing of road pavement due to the use of studded tyres is by far the most important source of non-exhaust particles. Today, about 110 000 tonnes of asphalt pavement are worn down every year, which is about one magnitude higher than the wearing of tyres. This, in turn, is about a magnitude larger than the wearing of brakes. How much of this wear that is airborne and inhalable (PM10) is today unknown for Swedish conditions, but the chemical composition is rather well known. Road pavement particles primarily consist of the rock material of the pavement and a few per cent of bitumen and have been shown to be an important source of heavy metals. Tyre-wear particles mainly consist of different kinds of rubber but also a quite large number of chemicals, e.g. Zinc and PAH. Today there is no concordance about the size of the emissions of, or the hazards with, tyre particles. In a few Swedish investigations, based upon calculations, wear particles from brakes have been shown to be a possibly important source of heavy metal (especially Cu) pollution in large cities. A brief overview of the road-dust modules of two air-pollution models points out a need for verification and further development of these modules.

Most of the medical literature agrees that smaller particles are more hazardous for the health than are larger particles. Nevertheless, many exceptions show that particle size is only one among several important characteristics to be considered for a more univocal knowledge about particles and health. Many environmental studies focus on the effects of road-dust chemistry, mainly heavy metals and PAH, and the environmental effects in surface waters, groundwater and soil. The effects of the particle characteristics of pollution is rarely investigated.

Research efforts on non-exhaust particles are considered large, both due to the growing concern about particle related health effects and due to the lack of knowledge about particle characteristics and emissions in Sweden.

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