Female volunteer motion in rear impact sled tests in comparison to results from earlier male volunteer tests

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Anna Carlsson
Mats Y. Svensson
Johan Davidsson
Sylvia Schick
Stefan Horion
Wofram Hell

Vehicle related crashes causing neck injuries (whiplash) are costly and common, and injury statistic data shows a larger risk of neck injuries for females than for males. This study aims at investigating differences between female and male dynamic response in rear impacts. Rear impact sled tests with female volunteers were carried out and the results were compared with previously performed tests with males in matching test conditions. The volunteer tests were performed at a change of velocity of 7 km/h. The comparison of the average response of the males and the females and their response corridors showed several differences. The horizontal head acceleration peak value was on average 40% higher and occurred on average 18% earlier for the female volunteers compared to the male volunteers. The NIC value was 45% lower and 30% earlier for the females, probably due to a 27% smaller initial head-to-head restraint distance and thereby a 24% earlier head restraint contact. The results provide characteristic differences between dynamic responses of females and males in low speed rear impacts. These results contribute to the understanding of human dynamic response in rear impacts. In addition, they can be used in the process of future development if numerical and/or mechanical human models for crash testing.

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