Externa kostnader i transportscenarier med utökad användning av sjöfart

Victor Sowa

The goal of this study is to provide material that illustrates how the external costs caused by freight transports are affected when today’s transport solutions are replaced by alternatives that use sea transports to a larger extent. This is demonstrated for two cases:

  • In the container case a transport from the Swedish east coast/Stockholm to the port of Hamburg is assumed. The transport goes in alternative 1 by rail to the port of Gothenburg and from there by container vessel to Hamburg and in alternative 2 directly by container vessel to Hamburg.
  • In the trailer case a transport from the Swedish east coast/Stockholm to the port of Travemünde in Northern Germany is assumed. The transport goes in alternative 1 on the road to the port of Trelleborg and from there by ropax-ferry to Travemünde and in alternative 2 directly by roro vessel to Travemünde.

Both in the container case and in the trailer case the external costs are calculated to be about equal or lower for the direct sea alternatives than for the combined land/sea alternatives (depending on if ASEK or Ricardo is used for valuation). The costs are much lower in the sensitivity analysis in the trailer case where lower NOx for the roro vessel are assumed. The comparison is incomplete in the container case with ASEK-valuation as ASEK does not value scarcity for rail. It is possible that the external costs for the land/sea alternative increase significantly when the external costs for scarcity are included. The relatively low internalizing infrastructure charges for sea transports imply that the direct sea transport alternatives have higher external costs than the combined land/sea alternatives when taxes and charges are deducted. The results are robust in the trailer case (regardless of valuation) and the container case (with Ricardo valuation). In the container case with ASEK-valuation the comparison is incomplete as ASEK does not valuate scarcity for rail.



ICTTP 2020

ICTTP, International Conference on Traffic and Transport Psychology, is postponed until August 2021.

European Transport Conference

The ETC, European Transport Conference will be organized in an online format.

Society for Benefit-Cost Analysis: European Conference 2020

VTI and Centre for Transport Studies (CTS) at Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) organise Society for Benefit-Cost Analysis: European Conference 2020. 



Additional policy instruments are needed to achieve Swedish environmental quality objectives for maritime transport

Achieving the national and international environmental objectives for maritime airborne emissions requires a combination of new and more powerful policy instruments. The policies already in place are not enough. This is one of the conclusions of a research...


Opportunities for a new market in electrified regional flight

Large, electrified aircraft is far off in the future. On the other hand, there may be potential for a new market with smaller regional flights. These are the conclusions of a literature survey made by researchers at VTI.


Need for standards as electric road systems are developed

The need for standardisation is increasing as electric road systems are reaching higher levels of maturity. A large part of the standards for intelligent transport systems (ITS) assessed in a new VTI and SIS study was considered potentially useful for...


Unique knowledge compilation on microplastics from road traffic

Although we know that tyre and road surface wear generates significant emissions of microplastic particles, knowledge about them is very limited. This is the conclusion of a report issued by the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI).


Measures for infrastructure climate adaptation requires prioritisation

The effect of climate change will result in more extreme weather events causing for example increased risk of floods, and landslides, which will result in great costs to society. Therefore, society needs to prepare for the consequences brought on by climate...


Increased interest in train simulators

VTI has developed a train simulator that has become a valued tool in train driver education and research on how simulators can be used to improve railway technology.