Externa kostnader i transportscenarier med utökad användning av sjöfart

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Victor Sowa

The goal of this study is to provide material that illustrates how the external costs caused by freight transports are affected when today’s transport solutions are replaced by alternatives that use sea transports to a larger extent. This is demonstrated for two cases:

  • In the container case a transport from the Swedish east coast/Stockholm to the port of Hamburg is assumed. The transport goes in alternative 1 by rail to the port of Gothenburg and from there by container vessel to Hamburg and in alternative 2 directly by container vessel to Hamburg.
  • In the trailer case a transport from the Swedish east coast/Stockholm to the port of Travemünde in Northern Germany is assumed. The transport goes in alternative 1 on the road to the port of Trelleborg and from there by ropax-ferry to Travemünde and in alternative 2 directly by roro vessel to Travemünde.

Both in the container case and in the trailer case the external costs are calculated to be about equal or lower for the direct sea alternatives than for the combined land/sea alternatives (depending on if ASEK or Ricardo is used for valuation). The costs are much lower in the sensitivity analysis in the trailer case where lower NOx for the roro vessel are assumed. The comparison is incomplete in the container case with ASEK-valuation as ASEK does not value scarcity for rail. It is possible that the external costs for the land/sea alternative increase significantly when the external costs for scarcity are included. The relatively low internalizing infrastructure charges for sea transports imply that the direct sea transport alternatives have higher external costs than the combined land/sea alternatives when taxes and charges are deducted. The results are robust in the trailer case (regardless of valuation) and the container case (with Ricardo valuation). In the container case with ASEK-valuation the comparison is incomplete as ASEK does not valuate scarcity for rail.

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