Externa kostnader i transportscenarier med utökad användning av sjöfart

Victor Sowa

The goal of this study is to provide material that illustrates how the external costs caused by freight transports are affected when today’s transport solutions are replaced by alternatives that use sea transports to a larger extent. This is demonstrated for two cases:

  • In the container case a transport from the Swedish east coast/Stockholm to the port of Hamburg is assumed. The transport goes in alternative 1 by rail to the port of Gothenburg and from there by container vessel to Hamburg and in alternative 2 directly by container vessel to Hamburg.
  • In the trailer case a transport from the Swedish east coast/Stockholm to the port of Travemünde in Northern Germany is assumed. The transport goes in alternative 1 on the road to the port of Trelleborg and from there by ropax-ferry to Travemünde and in alternative 2 directly by roro vessel to Travemünde.

Both in the container case and in the trailer case the external costs are calculated to be about equal or lower for the direct sea alternatives than for the combined land/sea alternatives (depending on if ASEK or Ricardo is used for valuation). The costs are much lower in the sensitivity analysis in the trailer case where lower NOx for the roro vessel are assumed. The comparison is incomplete in the container case with ASEK-valuation as ASEK does not value scarcity for rail. It is possible that the external costs for the land/sea alternative increase significantly when the external costs for scarcity are included. The relatively low internalizing infrastructure charges for sea transports imply that the direct sea transport alternatives have higher external costs than the combined land/sea alternatives when taxes and charges are deducted. The results are robust in the trailer case (regardless of valuation) and the container case (with Ricardo valuation). In the container case with ASEK-valuation the comparison is incomplete as ASEK does not valuate scarcity for rail.



Vision Zero for Sustainable Road Safety in the Baltic Sea Region

The conference Vision Zero for Sustainable Road Safety in the Baltic Sea Region is held i Vilnius, Lithuania. VTI is part of the organisation committé and also one of the speakers.

ICTTP 2020

ICTTP, International Conference on Traffic and Transport Psychology, is held in Gothenburg, Sweden.



International standardisation efforts have many advantages

VTI participates in several international standardisation committees. The work is important because it helps to ensure that standards can be adapted to Swedish conditions and it also provides access to valuable contacts and networks.


China wants to work with the best

Through the CTS cooperation, VTI is gaining valuable research contacts with China. The country is facing major challenges in the field of road safety but also has enormous potential.


VTI participated in conference on electric roads

Systems with electrified roads are a relatively new concept and many projects have been launched in recent years. To stimulate the transfer of knowledge and collaboration, the Research and Innovation Platform for Electric Roads arranged its second...


ADAS&ME is tackling the interaction between people and technology

ADAS&ME is a major EU project focused on automation, the human condition and the human environment. The budget is EUR 9.6 million and VTI is the coordinator.


Users contribute to the development of train simulators

Apart from advanced driving simulators, VTI has developed several variations of train simulators which are used for training, education and research. In recent years, interest has increased drastically among major actors in the railway sector, and VTI has...


VR study to contribute to a better working environment for bus drivers

A study where bus drivers test autonomous driving in a VR environment may contribute to a better working environment with reduced stress on the driver and safer driving.