Emissioner från bränder: Metoder, modeller och mätningar

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Anders Lönnermark
Jesper Axelsson
Marie Haeger-Eugensson
Anna Palm Cousins
Bengt Rosén
Håkan Stripple

Traditionally, fires have been associated with losses of life and property, and costs for interruptions in production etc. In recent years increased attention has been paid to the fact that fires also are related to environmental problems. The emissions from fires can consist of a number of different types of species with a variety of effects to health and the environment. In the present report a method is described on how to determine the emissions from a fire and how the emissions are spread. The aim of the work has been to study the entire process from a specific fire scenario to the spread of the emissions to air, soil, and water. The result is a method with a number of different subparts. These subparts include: description of fire scenario, modelling of production of emissions, and modelling of spread of emissions. They are described as is how the different parts are linked to each other.

Fire tests were performed with electric and electronic waste, and car tyres. Tests were performed both with and without water application and in connection with the tests the fire gases, run-off water, and fire debris were analysed. Based on the fire tests and literature data from other tests, emission models were developed. Knowledge of formation mechanisms for different species was also used. Several of the modelling tools used with the project demand both much time and computer resources. Therefore, they might not be useful in the acute phase of an accident, but should instead be used in the prevention work of the rescue services. In case of a fire in a specific object with a material composition or mode of storage different from those of the cases that the emission models were based on, supplementary fire tests might be needed to develop representative emission models.

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