Dynamic kinematic responses of female volunteers in rear impacts and comparison to previous male volunteer tests

Publisher's full text
Anna Carlsson
Johan Davidsson
Wolfram Hell
Sylvia Schick
Mats Y. Svensson

Objectives: The objective was to quantify dynamic responses of 50th percentile females in rear impacts and compare to those from similar tests with males. The results will serve as a basis for future work with models, criteria, and safety systems.

Methods: A rear impact sled test series with 8 female volunteers was performed at velocity changes of 5 and 7 km/h. The following dynamic response corridors were generated for the head, T1 (first thoracic vertebra) and head relative to T1: (1) accelerations in posterior-anterior direction, (2) horizontal and vertical displacements, (3) angular displacements for 6 females close to the 50th percentile in size. Additionally, the head-to-head restraint distance and contact time and neck injury criterion (NIC) were extracted from the data set. These data were compared to results from previously performed male volunteer tests, representing the 50th percentile male, in equivalent test conditions. T-tests were performed with the statistical significance level of.05 to quantify the significance of the parameter value differences for the males and females.

Results: At 7 km/h, the females showed 29 percent earlier head-to-head restraint contact time (p =.0072); 27 percent shorter horizontal rearward head displacement (p =.0017); 36 percent narrower head extension angle (p =.0281); and 52 percent lower NIC value (p =.0239) than the males in previous tests. This was mainly due to 35 percent shorter initial head-to-head restraint distance for the females (p =.0125). The peak head acceleration in the posterior-anterior direction was higher and occurred earlier for the females.

Conclusions: The overall result indicated differences in the dynamic response for the female and male volunteers. The results could be used in developing and evaluating a mechanical and/or mathematical average-sized female dummy model for rear impact safety assessment. These models can be used as a tool in the design of protective systems and for further development and evaluation of injury criteria. © 2011 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

MEET US


25-27
Aug

ICTTP 2020

ICTTP, International Conference on Traffic and Transport Psychology, is held in Gothenburg, Sweden.

LATEST NEWS


2018-11-19

Report regarding government commission on the costs of traffic to society has been submitted

Since 2013, the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI) has had several government commissions to produce documentation on the costs to society caused by traffic. On 1 November 2018, the agency reported its latest commission, Samkost 3....


2018-10-29

International standardisation efforts have many advantages

VTI participates in several international standardisation committees. The work is important because it helps to ensure that standards can be adapted to Swedish conditions and it also provides access to valuable contacts and networks.


2018-10-24

China wants to work with the best

Through the CTS cooperation, VTI is gaining valuable research contacts with China. The country is facing major challenges in the field of road safety but also has enormous potential.


2018-10-23

VTI participated in conference on electric roads

Systems with electrified roads are a relatively new concept and many projects have been launched in recent years. To stimulate the transfer of knowledge and collaboration, the Research and Innovation Platform for Electric Roads arranged its second...


2018-10-18

ADAS&ME is tackling the interaction between people and technology

ADAS&ME is a major EU project focused on automation, the human condition and the human environment. The budget is EUR 9.6 million and VTI is the coordinator.


2018-10-05

Users contribute to the development of train simulators

Apart from advanced driving simulators, VTI has developed several variations of train simulators which are used for training, education and research. In recent years, interest has increased drastically among major actors in the railway sector, and VTI has...