Cykelvänlig stad - betydelsen av stadsutformning och infrastruktur

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Kerstin Robertson
Sebastian Bamberg
John Parkin
Aslak Fyhri

This report presents the results of a study with the overall aim of analysing the extent to which urban form and the design of the transport system can explain the level of cycling in cities. Distance was the most important factor associated with levels of bicycle use. Bicycle traffic in cities can have several positive effects on quality of life. Despite these benefits bike share varies greatly between cities, both within and between countries, and in many cities there is a large potential for increased bicycle use. Better understanding of the causes of these differences is important for developing policies and measures that promote cycling. The analysis is based on published studies of the relationship between cycling and various properties of the physical urban environment. The purpose of the study is to conduct a systematic review of relevant published studies and carry out a statistical meta-analysis of the relationship between cycling and various aspects of the urban physical environment. The main contribution of this statistical meta-analysis is in providing a quantitative measure of their effects. Distance was the most important factor associated with levels of bicycle use, as would be expected. Land use, which was operationalised as measures of density and accessibility, was the second most important variable. Other variables in the analysis included the transport system, the urban environment and safety. The transport system variable was represented by measures of the street and bicycle network density, and the presence and quality of infrastructure for cycling. The urban environment covered various properties such as type of housing and neighborhood, but also aesthetic qualities and attractiveness, and safety included both safety and security. The findings agreed well with the results from the analysis of conclusions in published reviews addressing these issues. With some allowance for the difficulties to demonstrate causality, we suggest that these aggregate variables are relevant for local planning aiming at increasing cycling. There is also a good consistency between studies of different physical factors on urban cycling, but if the goal is to develop support and guidance that can be used in practical planning, more specific factors need to be carefully considered. Detailed models of the effects of various factors are obviously of relevance and importance to improve our knowledge and understanding, and it is important that this information is communicated and made available to policy-makers and planners. The relative significance of different factors in different cities must however be derived from such basic knowledge combined with professional knowledge about local conditions.

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