An evaluation of the environmentally differentiated fairway dues in Sweden 1998–2017

Download
Tobias Lindé

The report aims to present and analyze the development of the environmentally differentiated fairway dues in Sweden and the impacts of the system. A system differentiated for sulphur oxides (SOx) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) was introduced in 1998. The implementation of the International Maritime Organization’s (IMO) stricter SOx requirements in the Baltic and North Sea areas in 2015 made the SOx differentiation obsolete. In 2018 the system was replaced by a new fee system with different differentiation.

The Swedish Maritime Administration (SMA) is responsible for determining and collecting the fairway dues and is also dependent on this income as an important source of funding for its activities. The amounts to be paid and the emission levels that are necessary to be eligible for a certificate that entitles discounts are stated in the SMA’s regulations on fairway dues. These regulations have changed over the years and to give an overview of these changes a presentation of regulations and found amendments is provided.

Except for some early studies evaluating the first few years of the environmentally differentiated fairway dues, little has been done to evaluate the impact of the policy instrument that was in place for 20 years. The information found in previous studies, annual reports and available data provided by the SMA is compiled and analyzed to present the impacts of the fairway dues from 1998 to 2017.

The numbers and characteristics of vessels with SOx and NOx reduction certificates are compiled from several sources. Abatement techniques and costs are discussed. Available estimates of reduced emissions from certified vessels are presented and analyzed. As far as possible, the costs and benefits for society of reduced emissions are compared and the contribution to fulfillment of environmental objectives is discussed. More emphasis is placed on the NOx differentiation since problems with high levels of NOx emissions remain whereas SOx emissions have declined substantially in the Baltic Sea, especially since the implementation of stricter IMO requirements.

MEET US


25-27
Aug

ICTTP 2020

ICTTP, International Conference on Traffic and Transport Psychology, is postponed until August 2021.
9-11
Sep

European Transport Conference

The ETC, European Transport Conference will be organized in an online format.
13-14
Oct

Society for Benefit-Cost Analysis: European Conference 2020

VTI and Centre for Transport Studies (CTS) at Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) organise Society for Benefit-Cost Analysis: European Conference 2020. 

LATEST NEWS


2020-06-18

Additional policy instruments are needed to achieve Swedish environmental quality objectives for maritime transport

Achieving the national and international environmental objectives for maritime airborne emissions requires a combination of new and more powerful policy instruments. The policies already in place are not enough. This is one of the conclusions of a research...


2020-06-16

Opportunities for a new market in electrified regional flight

Large, electrified aircraft is far off in the future. On the other hand, there may be potential for a new market with smaller regional flights. These are the conclusions of a literature survey made by researchers at VTI.


2020-06-15

Need for standards as electric road systems are developed

The need for standardisation is increasing as electric road systems are reaching higher levels of maturity. A large part of the standards for intelligent transport systems (ITS) assessed in a new VTI and SIS study was considered potentially useful for...


2020-05-25

Unique knowledge compilation on microplastics from road traffic

Although we know that tyre and road surface wear generates significant emissions of microplastic particles, knowledge about them is very limited. This is the conclusion of a report issued by the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI).


2020-05-25

Measures for infrastructure climate adaptation requires prioritisation

The effect of climate change will result in more extreme weather events causing for example increased risk of floods, and landslides, which will result in great costs to society. Therefore, society needs to prepare for the consequences brought on by climate...


2020-04-16

Increased interest in train simulators

VTI has developed a train simulator that has become a valued tool in train driver education and research on how simulators can be used to improve railway technology.