Resarch areas

Driver distraction – A review of the literature

Year:
2007
VTI-code:
R594A

Authors: Katja Kircher

Until recently there was no generally accepted definition of distraction, and the most prominent discordance was that some researchers included cognitive inattention in the concept, while others reserved the term solely for visual distraction. In 2005 a large part of the First International Conference on Distracted Driving was dedicated to agreeing on a definition. The resulting definition clearly excludes long-term impairments like fatigue and alcohol intoxication, and states that the attention must be drawn away from driving towards something else in order to qualify as ”distraction”. Go to the VTI publication

 
 

Research area

People in the transport system

  • Published: 2007-10-29
  • VTI-code: R594A

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The Elderly in the transport system – mobility, design and training problems

Year:
2007
VTI-code:
R593

Authors: Tania Dukic Willstrand , Satu Heikkinen , Per Henriksson , Lena Levin , Astrid Linder , Selina Mårdh , Sara Nygårdhs , Björn Peters , Benny Nielsen

The elderly in the transport system – mobility, design and training problems, is a literature study with a problem-formulating purpose compiled by a group of researchers with different specializations and experiences from numerous divisions at VTI. The purpose is to give an overview of previous research at VTI and similar research at other research institutes and universities/colleges as well as to indicate a number of directions for future research on the mobility of the elderly and the elderly as actors within the transport system.

The report has a clear, multidisciplinary ...

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Research area

People in the transport system

  • Published: 2007-10-11
  • VTI-code: R593

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Fatigue at sea – A field study in Swedish shipping

Year:
2007
VTI-code:
R586A

Authors: Mats Gillberg , Margareta Lützhöft , Birgitta Thorslund , Albert Kircher

The purpose of this study was to collect data about the fatigue level of bridge watch keepers to use for revising earlier sleep models, and devise innovative solutions for the shipping industry.

Data collection included interviews with shipping companies and a field study onboard 13 cargo vessels. 32 participants took part in representing two watch systems; 2-watch and 3-watch. Subjective sleepiness and stress estimations were performed once every hour. EOG was used to record eye movement behaviour. Reaction time test was made to examine performance.

3-watch ...

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Research area

People in the transport system

  • Published: 2007-09-28
  • VTI-code: R586A

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Older participants in driving simulator studies – A literature review

Year:
2007
VTI-code:
R581

Authors: Per Henriksson

This research overview deals with simulator studies involving older participants, of about 65 years of age or older. The overview has been structured in accordance with the aims the studies referred to regarding simulator driving. In the driving simulator evaluations have been made of the benefit of various types of support systems for the driver, further driving behaviour has been investigated (in general and in particular situations when secondary tasks are carried out, etc.), as well as how the simulator functions as an instrument for assessing driving ability.

The instructions ...

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Research area

People in the transport system

  • Published: 2007-08-31
  • VTI-code: R581

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Expectations and experiences of professional drivers of rumble strips in combination with overtaking sections

Year:
2007
VTI-code:
N3-2007

Authors: Anna Anund , Mats Petersson

In order to increase the traffic safety on narrow roads the Swedish Road Administration has decided to use milled rumble strips at centre line in combination with overtaking sections. One of the road sections were this will be used is parts of road 33 between Eksjö and Målilla. The road is 8 meters wide, with an annual flow of 2,600 to 3,700 vehicles per day.

This report is based on a qualitative study aiming to capture the professional drivers’ opinions and expectations about a road design using milled rumble strips at centre line in combination with solid line and overtaking ...

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Research area

People in the transport system
Traffic safety

  • Published: 2007-08-23
  • VTI-code: N3-2007

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Drinking and driving. In-depth interviews with convicted drivers

Year:
2007
VTI-code:
R553

Authors: Inger Forsberg , Sonja Forward , Inger Linderholm

Eleven persons who had been sentenced to rehabilitation for drunken driving participated in this interview study. Most of them had had a driving licence for quite a long time, several of them for more than twenty-five years. Five persons had applied for and had also had an alcolock device installed in their vehicles, whilst six persons had chosen to refrain for various reasons. In-depth interviews were carried out according to a fixed interview guide with opportunities for spontaneous comments. The interviews dealt with two different areas; the first concerned respondents’ attitudes towards ...

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Research area

People in the transport system

  • Published: 2007-06-21
  • VTI-code: R553

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How do drivers evaluate fines for different traffic offences? A literature study

Year:
2007
VTI-code:
R574

Authors: Sonja Forward , Hans-Åke Cedersund

The most common sanction for most traffic offences in Sweden is a fine, but it is only one of several sanction options for society. If one is caught driving without a safety belt, and other similar minor traffic offences, the sanction is always a fine of fixed sum. For minor speeding offences a fixed sum is also charged. It is only for excessive speeding that a court may adjudge the confiscation of the driving license for a shorter or longer period. For drunken driving fines are not used at all. Instead a monetary fine, i.e. a fine assessed on the basis of the defendant’s daily income, will ...

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Research area

People in the transport system

  • Published: 2007-04-18
  • VTI-code: R574

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A quality evaluation of a travel survey. A study of sampling errors, nonresponse errors and measurement errors

Year:
2007
VTI-code:
R575

Authors: Åsa Forsman , Susanne Gustafsson , Anna Vadeby

TSU92- is a travel survey that started in 1992, and the aim was to increase the knowledge of unprotected road-users; both with respect to how much and where they travel and their use of safety equipment such as helmets and reflectors. The survey is still focused on the unprotected road-users, but questions about car use and use of public transportation are also included. The response rate has been around 55 percent the last years. An evaluation of the quality of the survey is presented in this report and some suggestions on how to improve the survey is given. The study is limited to three ...

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Research area

People in the transport system

  • Published: 2007-03-27
  • VTI-code: R575

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VMS – Variable Message Signs. A literature review

Year:
2007
VTI-code:
R570A

Authors: Sara Nygårdhs , Gabriel Helmers

The acronym VMS stands for Variable Message Sign. It is a sign for the purpose of displaying one of a number of messages that may be changed or switched on or off as required (CEN, 2005).

This literature review is primarily aimed at describing studies that deal with the interaction between driver behaviour and VMS. The collected references are, for the most part, published in Europe or studies about European conditions, published during the years of 2000 2005.

Areas treated in the study are effects on driver behaviour, driver attitudes, design, understanding and recall ...

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Research area

People in the transport system
Traffic safety

  • Published: 2007-03-06
  • VTI-code: R570A

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Passing a bus with 30 km/h. Assessment of safety effects of a speed limit of 30 km/h when passing a bus – a simulator study

Year:
2007
VTI-code:
R573

Authors: Anna Anund , Katja Kircher , Torbjörn Falkmer , Birgitta Thorslund , Albert Kircher

A simulator study was conducted to investigate the implementation of a new law which
prescribes a speed limit of 30 km/h when passing buses equipped with a 30-sign and
flashing lights. It was shown that the drivers follow the rule better when they pass a bus
on their own side than when the bus was standing on the opposite side of the road. The
slowest mean speeds were found when passing a bus on a road with a speed limit of
70 km/h. The highest speed reduction, however, was found when the posted speed limit
was 90 km/h. A bus without signage did not induce the ...

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Research area

People in the transport system
Traffic safety

  • Published: 2007-03-06
  • VTI-code: R573

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