Resarch areas

Effect of tire pressure on fuel consumption – methodology and results

Year:
2007
VTI-code:
R564

Authors: Per Jonsson

Information to motorists declares that the fuel consumption can be reduced by inflating tires to the correct pressure. However, few sources mention the methodology behind the estimates. On the other hand there are plentiful investigations on the extent of underinflated tires. The objective of this study is therefore to investigate what the real differrences in fuel consumption are between recommended pressure and a pressure 15 percent below the recommendation. Further, the objective is to investigate the precision of air pumps at service stations which represent the equipment motorists use to ...

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Research area

Environment

  • Published: 2007-08-16
  • VTI-code: R564

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Biofuels – A literature review

Year:
2007
VTI-code:
R563

Authors: Per Jonsson

Biofuels in the transport sector have been known as alternatives to gasoline and diesel for a long period of time. However, the use of these fuels in significant amounts has only recently commenced. The development in Sweden can be traced to a desire to decrease oil dependency and emissions of green house gases. Biofuels have the potential to contribute to that these goals are met.

Sweden’s national goal 2003 concerning the use of biofuels was 3 percent of all fuels in the road transport sector. The actual use reached 2.5 percent. Within the EU the goal is set to 5.75 percent by ...

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Research area

Environment

  • Published: 2007-06-29
  • VTI-code: R563

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Health impact, does it influence the acceptance for road pricing?

Year:
2007
VTI-code:
R582

Authors: Lena Nerhagen

Road traffic makes important contributions to the pollution levels in urban areas. Of the pollutants, particulate matter makes the greatest contribution to the external cost due to their detrimental impact on human health. Economic policy measures such as road pricing can be used for the regulation of traffic, thereby improving local air quality, but there is often a large resistance towards these types of policy measures. One reason for this could be that the impact and health effects are not well known to the general public. Hence, this aspect is likely to be of little importance for the ...

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Research area

Environment
Transport economics

  • Published: 2007-06-27
  • VTI-code: R582

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Noise emission from railway traffic

Year:
2007
VTI-code:
R559A

Authors: Mikael Ögren

European authorities hope to be able to increase the volume of freight and passengers that are transported on railway systems compared to those transported on roads. If that policy is successful the problem of noise from railway traffic will increase. It is known
from previous research that measures against the noise are more efficient if applied directly at the source itself rather than using indirect measures such as noise barriers and increased window insulation. This report is a literature survey on how the railway noise is generated, and to what extend different measures at the ...

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Research area

Environment

  • Published: 2007-02-19
  • VTI-code: R559A

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The Winter Model, Stage 2. Final report

Year:
2006
VTI-code:
R531

Authors: Bo Karlsson , Anna Niska , Göran Blomqvist , Mats Gustafsson , Staffan Möller , Carl-Gustaf Wallman , Gudrun Öberg , Carl Magnus Berglund

The aim of the Winter Model is to estimate and put a value on the most important impacts of the strategies and measures in winter road management for road users, road management authorities and society at large. The main report itself is a summary of the reports that describe the submodels in the Winter Model.
The hub of the model is the Road Condition Model which, on the basis of weather data, undertaken road management measures and traffic, calculates road conditions hour by hour during the winter season. The Road Condition Model controls calculations in the effect models: Accident ...

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Research area

Environment
Infrastructure maintenance

  • Published: 2006-12-07
  • VTI-code: R531

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Habitat fragmentation due to transportation infrastructure. COST 341 national state-of-the-art report Sweden

Year:
2006
VTI-code:
R530A

Authors: Andreas Seiler , Lennart Folkeson

The publication has been edited by Andreas Seiler and Lennart Folkeson.

Fragmentation of landscapes and habitats is a major cause of the impoverishment of biodiversity in Europe. Transportation infrastructure, notably roads and railways, strongly contribute to the fragmentation. This is an important issue in infrastructure planning in the densely populated countries in Europe. Increasing attention is being paid to landscape fragmentation also in Sweden.
Landscape fragmentation comprises the splitting of habitats and ecosystems in smaller and more isolated units. Habitat loss ...

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Research area

Environment

  • Published: 2006-11-17
  • VTI-code: R530A

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Methods for synchronizing driving patterns and emission data

Year:
2006
VTI-code:
R525

Authors: Rune Karlsson

A well-known problem in modal measurements of emissions of gasoline-powered cars is the lack of synchronism between engine data and emission data. The main difficulty when trying to eliminate this problem is to determine the time required by the exhaust gas to move from the cylinder to the trailing edge of the exhaust pipe. This time delay can vary several seconds depending on the engine speed and load and also on the volume of the exhaust system.
We discuss a number of conceivable approaches to compute this time delay. Three proposed methods have been investigated in more detail. The ...

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Research area

Environment
Vehicle technology

  • Published: 2006-10-06
  • VTI-code: R525

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Effects of winter tyres – state of the art

Year:
2006
VTI-code:
R543

Authors: Mats Gustafsson , Ulf Sandberg , Inger Forsberg , Ulf Hammarström , Christer Johansson , Bertil Forsberg , Mats Wiklund , Gudrun Öberg , Olle Nordström , Sonja Forward , Mattias Hjort , Carl Magnus Berglund , Stefan Grudemo , Torbjörn Jacobson

Choice of winter tyres has, from mainly being a matter of safety and economic costs for wearing of road pavements, during later years also become a matter of inhalable particles formed during pavement wear from studded tyres and their negative effects on public health. Further, the tyres’ effects on environment and noise have been illustrated in several studies. The issue is also complicated by the fact that tyre choice effects on traffic safety have several components, including such diverging parameters as friction and behaviour. Finally all aspects have to be evaluated from a socioeconomic ...

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Research area

Environment
Pavement Technology
Transport economics
Traffic safety

  • Published: 2006-08-18
  • VTI-code: R543

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PIARC 2006 XII Winter Road Congress 27–30 March 2006, Torino, Italy

Year:
2006
VTI-code:
N19A-2006

Authors: Gudrun Öberg

This report contains the reprints of proceedings of oral presentations at the XII International Winter Road Congress held by VTI researchers:
- The Winter Model – a Winter Maintenance Management System by Carl-Gustaf Wallman
- Winter Road Condition Model by Staffan Möller
- Variation of car accident risk during winter by Anna Bergström
- Does the official strategy protect or destroy our cultural heritage? Corrosion of archaeological artefacts exposed to de-icing salt in Sweden by Hans Antonson
- Automated monitoring of ground water contamination along salted roads by ...

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Research area

Environment
Traffic safety
Infrastructure maintenance

  • Published: 2006-06-26
  • VTI-code: N19A-2006

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PIARC 2006. XII Winter Road Congress 27–30 March 2006, Torino, Italy

Year:
2006
VTI-code:
N19D-2006

Authors: Gudrun Öberg

Till engelska:

This report contains the reprints of proceedings of oral presentations at the XII International Winter Road Congress held by VTI researchers:
- The Winter Model – a Winter Maintenance Management System by Carl-Gustaf Wallman
- Winter Road Condition Model by Staffan Möller
- Variation of car accident risk during winter by Anna Bergström
- Does the official strategy protect or destroy our cultural heritage? Corrosion of archaeological artefacts exposed to de-icing salt in Sweden by Hans Antonson
- Automated monitoring of ground water ...

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Research area

Environment
Traffic safety
Infrastructure maintenance

  • Published: 2006-06-26
  • VTI-code: N19D-2006

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