Resarch areas

Effects of dust binding of paved roads

Year:
2010
VTI-code:
R666

Authors: Göran Blomqvist , Mats Gustafsson , Martin Ferm , Per Jonsson

Inhalable particles from road dust are a health problem and a major cause of the environmental quality standard for particles in outdoor air not being reached in Sweden. Formation of road dust along paved roads in the Nordic countries is largely related to the use of studded tires and winter operation of highways, such as sanding and salting. Road dust on the road surface is suspended to the air by traffic. To reduce dust suspension chemical dust control is sometimes used, meaning that a chemical solution is sprayed onto the road which is thus kept moist and dust is prevented from whirling ...

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Research area

Environment
Infrastructure maintenance

  • Published: 2010-03-22
  • VTI-code: R666

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Estimation of energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions during construction, maintenance and operation of roads

Year:
2010
VTI-code:
N3-2010

Authors: Annelie Carlson , Robert Karlsson

Typical values have been estimated per kilometre road regarding the use of energy and carbon dioxide emissions for construction as well as maintenance and operation for four separate cases. These cases have been defined from standard motorways, 2+1-roads (Swedish standard road with alternating one and two lanes in each direction) and normal two lane roads. The two lane road was further divided mainly with respect to traffic flow into two separate cases. These four cases have then been analysed during the phases of construction and service for 60 years. The resource needs have been quantified ...

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Research area

Environment
Infrastructure maintenance

  • Published: 2010-01-27
  • VTI-code: N3-2010

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NanoWear – nanoparticles from wear of tyres and pavement

Year:
2009
VTI-code:
R660

Authors: Göran Blomqvist , Mats Gustafsson , Mattias Hjort , Eva Brorström-Lundén , Andreas Dahl , Anders Gudmundsson , Christer Johansson , Per Jonsson , Erik Swietlicki

Particles from road and tyre wear have in recent years come into focus as they constitute an important and relatively unexplored contribution to air particulate pollution. Especially during winter and spring, wear particles contribute to violations of the environmental quality standard for inhalable particles in road and street environments. Mechanically generated wear particles are relatively coarse (> 0.5 microns) compared with combustion particles from vehicle exhaust, but in controlled trials in VTI's road simulator in the project WearTox, a fraction of ultra fine (<100 nm) particles ...

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Research area

Environment

  • Published: 2009-11-05
  • VTI-code: R660

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Noise charges for railway operators. Pricing by marginal cost principle

Year:
2009
VTI-code:
N30-2008

Authors: Lina Jonsson , Mikael Ögren , Henrik Andersson

Noise is a significant social problem. For example, more than 20 per cent of the European Union’s population is exposed to higher noise than what is considered acceptable. The transport sector is a major contributor to society’s increasing noise problem, due to increased traffic volumes and urbanization exposing more people to noise. Road traffic is admittedly the largest individual noise source in the transport sector, but other transport modes such as aircraft and railways are also responsible for considerable noise emissions.

Noise entails costs for the society. This fact, and ...

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Research area

Environment
Transport economics

  • Published: 2009-06-30
  • VTI-code: N30-2008

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Wear particles from road pavement with rubber mixed bitumen - comparison with reference pavement

Year:
2009
VTI-code:
N10-2009

Authors: Göran Blomqvist , Mats Gustafsson , Anders Gudmundsson , Per Jonsson

Studded tyre wear of road pavements cause emissions of inhalable particles (PM10). Allowed concentration of PM10 is regulated by an EU directive which is implemented in an environmental quality standard in Sweden. One way of reducing pavement wear particles is to adjust the properties of the road pavement. In the present project the effect on particle emission from mixing milled tyre rubber into the pavement bitumen has been investigated. Tests were made using the VTI road simulator with one pavement containing rubber and one reference pavement. The concentrations and size distributions of ...

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Research area

Environment
Pavement Technology

  • Published: 2009-02-17
  • VTI-code: N10-2009

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The mortality cost of particulate matter due to emissions in the Stockholm area – an investigation into harmfulness, sources and the geographical dimension of their impact

Year:
2009
VTI-code:
R635A

Authors: Robert Bergström , Kristina Eneroth , Bertil Forsberg , Christer Johansson , Lena Nerhagen

It has long been recognized that emissions from traffic have a negative impact on human health. In recent years there has been emerging consensus that the main influence is due to particulate matter. From an economic point of view these negative effects are external costs caused by traffic that, if not accounted for in decision making regarding transport, will result in a non-optimal allocation of resources leading to welfare losses. To be able to implement road pricing measures, but also for the evaluation of other control measures through benefit-cost analysis, information on the external ...

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Research area

Environment
Transport economics

  • Published: 2009-01-28
  • VTI-code: R635A

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The composition and use of the Swedish car fleet. Formulation of a forecasting system

Year:
2008
VTI-code:
R518A

Authors: Åsa Forsman , Inger Engström

Model-based forecasts of future emissions are of great importance for analysing and comparing different strategies to reach the Swedish transport policy objective concerning effect on climate and air pollution. The composition and use of the car fleet are important inputs to emission models, and the quality of the emission forecasts therefore depends on the quality of the car fleet forecasts.¨

Today, no Swedish national model system exists that provides all the important forecasts. The aim of this study has been to formulate such a system based on experiences with models described ...

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Research area

Environment

  • Published: 2008-04-01
  • VTI-code: R518A

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The effects of long and heavy trucks on the transport system. Report on a government assignment

Year:
2008
VTI-code:
R605

Authors: Urban Björketun , Ulf Hammarström , Mattias Haraldsson , Gunnar Lindberg , Inge Vierth , Mohammad-Reza Yahya , Mikael Ögren , Håkan Berell , Arne Carlsson , John McDaniel

Truck transportation with vehicles up to 25.25 meters in length and with a maximum
gross vehicle weight of 60 tonnes is permitted in Sweden and Finland. The standard in
the rest of the EU is 18.75 metres and 40 tonnes.
The Government has commissioned the Swedish National Road and Transport Research
Institute (VTI) to investigate what effects long trucks have for the transport system in
Sweden. We have interpreted the assignment as meaning that the effects of heavy trucks
are also to be described. The assignment includes analysing the competition between
road ...

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Research area

Traffic analysis
Environment
Transport system
Transport economics
Traffic safety

  • Published: 2008-02-01
  • VTI-code: R605

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