Resarch areas

Habitat fragmentation due to transportation infrastructure. COST 341 national state-of-the-art report Sweden

Year:
2006
VTI-code:
R530A

Authors: Andreas Seiler , Lennart Folkeson

The publication has been edited by Andreas Seiler and Lennart Folkeson.

Fragmentation of landscapes and habitats is a major cause of the impoverishment of biodiversity in Europe. Transportation infrastructure, notably roads and railways, strongly contribute to the fragmentation. This is an important issue in infrastructure planning in the densely populated countries in Europe. Increasing attention is being paid to landscape fragmentation also in Sweden.
Landscape fragmentation comprises the splitting of habitats and ecosystems in smaller and more isolated units. Habitat loss ...

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Research area

Environment

  • Published: 2006-11-17
  • VTI-code: R530A

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Methods for synchronizing driving patterns and emission data

Year:
2006
VTI-code:
R525

Authors: Rune Karlsson

A well-known problem in modal measurements of emissions of gasoline-powered cars is the lack of synchronism between engine data and emission data. The main difficulty when trying to eliminate this problem is to determine the time required by the exhaust gas to move from the cylinder to the trailing edge of the exhaust pipe. This time delay can vary several seconds depending on the engine speed and load and also on the volume of the exhaust system.
We discuss a number of conceivable approaches to compute this time delay. Three proposed methods have been investigated in more detail. The ...

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Research area

Environment
Vehicle technology

  • Published: 2006-10-06
  • VTI-code: R525

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Effects of winter tyres – state of the art

Year:
2006
VTI-code:
R543

Authors: Inger Forsberg , Mats Gustafsson , Mattias Hjort , Ulf Sandberg , Sonja Forward , Christer Johansson , Bertil Forsberg , Gudrun Öberg , Olle Nordström , Mats Wiklund , Ulf Hammarström , Stefan Grudemo , Carl Magnus Berglund , Torbjörn Jacobson

Choice of winter tyres has, from mainly being a matter of safety and economic costs for wearing of road pavements, during later years also become a matter of inhalable particles formed during pavement wear from studded tyres and their negative effects on public health. Further, the tyres’ effects on environment and noise have been illustrated in several studies. The issue is also complicated by the fact that tyre choice effects on traffic safety have several components, including such diverging parameters as friction and behaviour. Finally all aspects have to be evaluated from a socioeconomic ...

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Research area

Environment
Pavement Technology
Transport economics
Traffic safety

  • Published: 2006-08-18
  • VTI-code: R543

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PIARC 2006 XII Winter Road Congress 27–30 March 2006, Torino, Italy

Year:
2006
VTI-code:
N19A-2006

Authors: Gudrun Öberg

This report contains the reprints of proceedings of oral presentations at the XII International Winter Road Congress held by VTI researchers:
- The Winter Model – a Winter Maintenance Management System by Carl-Gustaf Wallman
- Winter Road Condition Model by Staffan Möller
- Variation of car accident risk during winter by Anna Bergström
- Does the official strategy protect or destroy our cultural heritage? Corrosion of archaeological artefacts exposed to de-icing salt in Sweden by Hans Antonson
- Automated monitoring of ground water contamination along salted roads by ...

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Research area

Environment
Traffic safety
Infrastructure maintenance

  • Published: 2006-06-26
  • VTI-code: N19A-2006

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PIARC 2006. XII Winter Road Congress 27–30 March 2006, Torino, Italy

Year:
2006
VTI-code:
N19D-2006

Authors: Gudrun Öberg

Till engelska:

This report contains the reprints of proceedings of oral presentations at the XII International Winter Road Congress held by VTI researchers:
- The Winter Model – a Winter Maintenance Management System by Carl-Gustaf Wallman
- Winter Road Condition Model by Staffan Möller
- Variation of car accident risk during winter by Anna Bergström
- Does the official strategy protect or destroy our cultural heritage? Corrosion of archaeological artefacts exposed to de-icing salt in Sweden by Hans Antonson
- Automated monitoring of ground water ...

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Research area

Environment
Traffic safety
Infrastructure maintenance

  • Published: 2006-06-26
  • VTI-code: N19D-2006

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Inhalable particles in railroad environments

Year:
2006
VTI-code:
R538

Authors: Göran Blomqvist , Mats Gustafsson

Airborne particles from railroad traffic have been identified as an air pollution problem
mainly in tunnel environments. In several subways around the world, the smell of brake
dust and high particle concentrations have focused attention on the sources of the
particles and the measures that can be taken to reduce emissions. But problems have
also been identified in railroad environments above ground. For instance, dust
deposition has been accused of damaging the enamel on cars parked closed to the
railroad. The deposition has been studied in a previous VTI ...

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Research area

Environment

  • Published: 2006-06-19
  • VTI-code: R538

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Noise Charge for rail operators

Year:
2006
VTI-code:
N7-2006

Authors: Henrik Andersson , Mikael Ögren

The Swedish Parliament has decided that, in order to mitigate externalities in railway infrastructure,
operators in the Swedish railway infrastructure shall pay charges based on
short-run marginal social costs. Internalization of the social cost from noise is of particular
interest, since it is the only environmental problem which people perceive as more
troublesome today than they did in the early 1990s.
Inclusion of a noise component in rail infrastructure charges raises two problems: (i) the
monetary evaluation of noise abatement, since noise is a non-marketed ...

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Research area

Environment
Transport economics

  • Published: 2006-03-20
  • VTI-code: N7-2006

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Engine management during standstill periods: idling or engine turn-off

Year:
2005
VTI-code:
R519

Authors: Ulf Hammarström , Mohammad-Reza Yahya

There is a scarcity of data on which decisions can be based regarding the limitation of idling during standstill periods. There is also reason to believe that the significance of engine management during standstill may vary between different propulsion systems and technical standards etc, which will increase the need for a decision base.
The need for data that describe exhaust emissions during crawling speed is particularly great in the case of tunnels. Ventilation plants in tunnels are designed on the basis of relationships between emissions and mean speed. Up till now, for speeds ...

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Research area

Environment

  • Published: 2005-11-03
  • VTI-code: R519

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