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This report contains the reprints of proceedings of oral presentations at the XII International Winter Road Congress held by VTI researchers:
- The Winter Model – a Winter Maintenance Management System by Carl-Gustaf Wallman
- Winter Road Condition Model by Staffan Möller
- Variation of car accident risk during winter by Anna Bergström
- Does the official strategy protect or destroy our cultural heritage? Corrosion of archaeological artefacts exposed to de-icing salt in Sweden by Hans Antonson
- Automated monitoring of ground water contamination along salted roads by
Bengt Wälivaara
- Studies of wear particles using the VTI road simulator/particle generator by Mats Gustafsson
- The environmental sub-model of the Swedish winter model – from real world data to a modelled scenario by Göran Blomqvist

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Research area

Environment
Traffic safety
Infrastructure maintenance

  • Published: 2006-06-26
  • VTI-code: N19D-2006

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Airborne particles from railroad traffic have been identified as an air pollution problem
mainly in tunnel environments. In several subways around the world, the smell of brake
dust and high particle concentrations have focused attention on the sources of the
particles and the measures that can be taken to reduce emissions. But problems have
also been identified in railroad environments above ground. For instance, dust
deposition has been accused of damaging the enamel on cars parked closed to the
railroad. The deposition has been studied in a previous VTI report, where 15 of the
analysed metals were assigned to railroad traffic. As a result of the introduction of the
environmental quality standard for inhalable particles on 1st of January 2005, the
interest in railroad particle pollution has increased further.
The present report focuses on the variation of PM10 (inhalable particles) in some
railroad environments under and above ground, the way these relate to traffic and on the
particles'size distributions and elemental composition.
The results show that particle concentrations in above ground railroad environments
(Linköping, Stockholm, Lund and Eslöv), do not exceed the environmental quality
standard during the campaigns. Diurnal mean values of PM10 range between 19 to 25
μg/m3. On the contrary, the diurnal mean concentrations on the platforms of the
underground stations Arlanda Central and Arlanda South are far above the limit value
(237 and 88 μg/m3 respectively).
In the tunnel environments of Arlanda, clear diurnal and weekly patterns in PM10
concentration can be identified. These patterns co-fluctuate with traffic frequency. The
particle mass size distribution has an obvious peak around 5–7 μm at Arlanda C, and
slightly smaller, 2–3 μm, at Arlanda S. The concentrations of both PM10 and ultrafine
particles (< 0,1 μm) vary a lot depending on different trains. Especially the ultrafine
particles seem to be emitted from certain trains, but it has not been possible to identify
the source of these particles.
The tunnel measurements also give some interesting results regarding possible measures
against high particle concentrations. Washing of the tunnel walls and floor was carried
out on two consecutive nights, but it had no noticeable results on particle
concentrations. This implies that a dominant proportion of the particles is directly
emitted rather than resuspended. On certain nights, the concentrations of all particle size
fractions sank to very low levels, lasting till the morning traffic began. This implies
effective self ventilation during these hours.
The elemental composition of the particles in the tunnel environments was dominated
by iron (84 % and 74 % respectively in Arlanda C and Arlanda S), but also other metals,
like Cu, Zn, Cr, Ni and Sb (only at Arlanda C) have relatively high concentrations. The
ratios between metals indicate, hypothetically, that the sources of iron, manganese and
maybe also nickel are rails and wheels, while the sources of copper and zinc are the
brake system.
Measurements in several different environments on Stockholm central station show that
PM10 vary several tens of μg/m3. Activity, related to both traffic and people, increases
particle concentration. The highest concentrations were measured inside the waiting
hall. Nevertheless, the concentrations on the platforms were generally at least as high as
in the busy street environment outside the station.
During a railroad travel, the PM10 and PM2,5 concentrations were generally low, but
increase at stops and, most prominently, on entering the Arlanda airport railroad
tunnels. The PM2,5 proportion is considered high, contributing to approximately
50–80 % of PM10.
All in all, the results of this study show that railroad traffic is a source of high
concentrations of iron-rich inhalable particles in railroad tunnel environments. Above
ground, in the often very open station environments, the emissions are probably
dispersed quickly, and higher concentrations therefore occur only during very short
periods. The sources of railroad emitted PM10 are likely to be rails, wheels and brakes,
but a source apportionment has not been accomplished in this project. The sources of
the ultrafine particles have not been identified.
For construction and operation of existing and future railroad- and subway tunnels and
their traffic, it is of great importance to investigate the importance of different particle
sources, the particles' health effects and possible measures to reduce emissions. Even
though no alarming. Also in above ground environment.

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Research area

Environment

  • Published: 2006-06-19
  • VTI-code: R538

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Noise Charge for rail operators

Year:
2006
VTI-code:
N7-2006

Authors: Henrik Andersson , Mikael Ögren

The Swedish Parliament has decided that, in order to mitigate externalities in railway infrastructure,
operators in the Swedish railway infrastructure shall pay charges based on
short-run marginal social costs. Internalization of the social cost from noise is of particular
interest, since it is the only environmental problem which people perceive as more
troublesome today than they did in the early 1990s.
Inclusion of a noise component in rail infrastructure charges raises two problems: (i) the
monetary evaluation of noise abatement, since noise is a non-marketed good, and (ii) the
estimation of the effect on the noise level that one extra train will create. We are interested
in the marginal noise, since infrastructure charges based on the short-run marginal
cost principle should be based on the effect from the marginal train, not the noise level
itself.
We show in this study that, based on already obtained knowledge, it is possible to implement
a noise component in the rail infrastructure charges. Those values that already
today are used to estimate the social cost from noise exposure (which in Sweden are
based on noise from road-traffic) in cost benefit analysis can also be used to calculate the
marginal cost. We recommend, however, that further research is carried out in order to
get more robust estimates and to get estimates based on railway traffic. We also show
that the existing noise estimation models can easily be modified to estimate the marginal
noise.
Noise infrastructure charges give the operators incentives to reduce their noise emissions.
We believe that this kind of charges can be used to reduce overall emission levels
to an optimal social level, but that it is important that these charges are based on monetary
estimates for rail-traffic and not road-traffic.

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Research area

Environment
Transport economics

  • Published: 2006-03-20
  • VTI-code: N7-2006

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VTI har genom regleringsbrevet för år 2003 fått regeringens uppdrag att:
 granska och kommentera samt årligen redovisa sina slutsatser rörande trafik¬verkens miljörapporter och de beräkningsmodeller och underlag som använts
 för transportsektorn tillhandahålla samt årligen redovisa uppdaterade samman¬ställningar avseende beräkningsmodeller och underlag för beskrivning av energianvändning och avgasemissioner.
Årets rapport omfattar en granskning och analys av trafikverkens miljörapportering med utgångspunkt ifrån det transportpolitiska delmålet En god miljö samt relevanta delmål till de nationella miljökvalitetsmålen. Rapporten omfattar klimatpåverkande gaser, kväveoxider, svaveldioxid, flyktiga organiska ämnen (VOC), hälsoeffekter av luft¬föroreningar, buller, kretsloppsanpassning samt natur- och kulturmiljö. En uppdaterad sammanställning över beräkningsmodeller och underlag för beskrivning av energi¬användning och avgasemissioner har sammanställts i bilaga 2.
Generellt, för alla områden, skulle rapporteringens tydlighet och överskådlighet förbättras om de data och den information som rapporteras tydligt relateras till miljökvalitetsmål med indikatorer, transportpolitiska mål med indikatorer samt till den totala miljöpåverkan inom respektive område. Rapporteringen bör dessutom komplet¬teras så att transportrelevanta delmål och indikatorer för de nationella miljö¬kvalitetsmålen inkluderas. Vidare bör strukturen och uppläggningen av rapporteringen för de olika transportslagen samordnas.
Målkonflikter och synergieffekter mellan miljömål och mellan miljömål och andra mål bör rapporteras som underlag för vidareutveckling av mål- och policyarbetet.
Rapporteringen bör kompletteras så att både trafik och infrastruktur inkluderas i rapporteringen för samtliga etappmål. Rapporteringen bör även kompletteras med fordon och färdmedel som idag inte inkluderas i rapporteringen. Geografiska avgräns¬ningar av redovisade emissioner från sjöfarten och luftfarten bör förtydligas med utgångspunkt i relevanta internationella överenskommelser. Eftersom trafikverken har ett övergripande ansvar för respektive transportsektor ska rapporteringen omfatta både de statliga och de kommunala vägnäten.
Behovet av komplettering av rapporteringen för respektive delområde redovisas i kapitel 12. Rapporten avslutas med en sammanställning av identifierade kunskapsluckor och FoU-behov.

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Research area

Environment
Planning and decision-making processes

  • Published: 2006-01-26
  • VTI-code: N57-2005

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Inom EMFO, som är ett forskningsprogram inom området emissioner från väg¬fordon, traktorer och större arbetsmaskiner, har planer presenterats på att bygga upp en databas som blir en samlad kunskapsplattform tillgänglig via internet. I föreliggande förstudie utreds krav på och förutsättningar för databasens utform¬ning och ett förslag till databasstruktur redovisas.

Ett minimikrav är att databasen passar för projektet ”Implementering av EU-gemensam emissionsmodell för vägtrafik som underlag för svensk emissions¬statistik och uppföljning av luftkvalitetsdirektiv” och särskilt delen Anpassning av svenska aktivitetsdata till den nya emissionsmodellen som då gäller ARTEMIS. ARTEMIS-modellen är en gemensam europeisk emissionsmodell för vägtrafik. Den kräver aktivitetsdata som kan lagras i och göras tillgängliga genom den data¬bas som föreslås i föreliggande arbete.

Data av den typ som databasen innehåller kan även komma till användning för andra ändamål än beräkningar med ARTEMIS-modellen. Överhuvudtaget är en mer eller mindre allmänt tillgänglig databas inom ämnesområdet, där väl¬definierade uppgifter med kvalitetsdeklaration återfinns, av stort värde.

Den föreslagna databasen är flexibel och kan expanderas allteftersom behov uppstår att inkludera nya typer av data. Detaljfrågor kring uttagsprogram har ej behandlats, i stället har arbetet med databasstrukturen prioriterats.

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Research area

Environment

  • Published: 2005-12-20
  • VTI-code: N44-2005

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There is a scarcity of data on which decisions can be based regarding the limitation of idling during standstill periods. There is also reason to believe that the significance of engine management during standstill may vary between different propulsion systems and technical standards etc, which will increase the need for a decision base.
The need for data that describe exhaust emissions during crawling speed is particularly great in the case of tunnels. Ventilation plants in tunnels are designed on the basis of relationships between emissions and mean speed. Up till now, for speeds below 30 km/h, these relationships have not been satisfactorily based on measured data.
The primary objective has been to fill the gaps in knowledge by exhaust measurements.
The methodology has comprised a survey of the literature, measurements and analyses.
Different objectives result in different limiting times for idling during standstill periods . For the vehicle fleet as a whole, different limits have been estimated for different objectives: for private economy, 12 seconds; for macro economy overall, 23 seconds; for energy policy, 12 seconds, and for air quality, 36 seconds. There are also time limits per compound, per technical standard and per vehicle type. The time for diesel is shorter than for petrol engine.
According to measurements, emission of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) at crawling speed varies over the range -51 and 171% for different engine types when speed drops from 25 to 10 km/h. There are considerable differences in the speed dependence of fuel consumption both between and within studies. The relationships which could be estimated for particulate emissions do not, in any one case, indicate an increase in emission as speed drops from 25 km/h.



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Research area

Environment

  • Published: 2005-11-03
  • VTI-code: R519

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VTI:s avgasmätbil kan betraktas som ett mindre rullande laboratorium som framförallt mäter ett antal motorberoende variabler under körningen. Med moderna instrument är i många fall mätningen momentan, eller tillräckligt snabb för att hanteras som momentan. Detta gäller dock inte för de instrument som registrerar halter av olika gaser i bilens avgaser. De här instrumenten transporterar dels icke försumbara gasvolymer, dels baseras mätningen på en kemisk eller fysisk process som inte är fullständigt momentan. Sammantaget medför detta tidsförskjutningar mellan provtagning och provsvar som maximalt kan ligga omkring en minut för den utrustning som finns i avgasmätbilen.

Syftet med notatet är att ta fram data på tidsförskjutningarna för avgasmätinstrumenten för olika provkonfigurationer. Såväl provuppställningar för att mäta avgaser från bilen som för omgivningsluft finns medtagna.

Eftersom bilar vanligtvis inte körs under konstanta förhållanden under en längre tid finns ett behov av att analysera körförloppen baserat på variationer i körningen som kan påverka bränsleförbrukning, avgasutsläpp mm. För att kunna ”datera” en viss utsläppsmängd i tiden till en händelse, exempelvis acceleration när trafikljuset slår om till grönt, måste alla data kunna synkroniseras. I detta projekt har vi tagit fram data för att kunna synkronisera samtliga instrument till provtagningspunkten, i detta fall ett uttag i avgasröret. Dessutom finns ett förslag på en metod för att synkronisera data från en punkt i motorn.

Förskjutningen i tiden kan sägas bestå av två delar. Den första delen innefattar den tid det tar för gasen att transporteras från provtagningspunkten tills att instrumentet börjar registrera förändringen (10 % av slutlig nivå). Den andra delen, stigtiden, är den tid det tar från att mätinstrumentet börjar registrera förändringen, till att instrumentet visar slutlig nivå, eller mera exakt, 90 % därav. I notatet redovisas utrustning, metod och tillvägagångssätt för att ta reda på längden hos de olika faserna i tidsförskjutningen.

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Research area

Environment
Vehicle technology

  • Published: 2005-11-02
  • VTI-code: N41-2005

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The external costs of traffic air pollution

Year:
2005
VTI-code:
R517

Authors: Bertil Forsberg , Christer Johansson , Boel Lövenheim , Lena Nerhagen

This report presents the results from an examination of ExternE–calculations for traffic in Stockholm and Sweden. Based on this examination we propose a method for the calculation of the external costs caused by local traffic air pollution. The method is to be used in Swedish transport planning. In addition the report presents the current state of the art regarding the methods used for the calculation of external costs for air pollutants with a regional dispersion. The report only discusses impacts on human health and eco-systems.

The report includes two parts. In the first part the current method for the calculation of external costs used by ASEK is compared to the method developed in the ExternE-projects. Thereafter a proposal for a new approach that is an adaption of the method developed in the ExternE-projects is discussed. Finally we give an overview of the methods used for the calculation of the impact of air pollution on a regional scale. In part two the details regarding the examination of the ExternE-calculations for local air pollution in Stockholm are presented.

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Research area

Environment
Transport economics

  • Published: 2005-10-14
  • VTI-code: R517

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Inhalable particles from the interaction between tyres, road pavement and friction materials. Final report from the WearTox project

Year:
2005
VTI-code:
R520

Authors: Mats Gustafsson , Göran Blomqvist , Bertil Rudell , Anders Gudmundsson , Andreas Dahl , John Lindbom , Anders Ljungman , Erik Swietlicki

High concentrations of inhalable particles (PM10) in ambient air have a proven relation to mortality and different kinds of airway disorders in the population. There are also indications of a connection to cardio vascular diseases. The negative health effects of particles have caused the EU to adopt a directive, which in Sweden has been implemented in environmental quality standards for inhalable particles. These standards are today exceeded in many cities in Sweden, especially in highly trafficked road and street environments in dry periods during winter. In contrast to what might be expected, most of the PM10 do not originate from vehicle exhaust, but from the wear and resuspension of particles from the pavements, tyres and brakes. The most significant source seems to be pavement wear caused by studded tyre use. These facts have resulted in an increasing interest in the properties and effects of wear particles.
The aims of this project have been to describe PM10 from studded tyre wear and to study their inflammatory effects in human airway cells. The VTI circular road simulator has been used to generate “clean” wear particles from two different pavements; asphalt concrete (ABT) and stone mastic asphalt (ABS), with granite respectively quartzite as the main stone materials. The advantage of using the road simulator is that the contribution from other sources can be minimised.
During the project time, the project was expanded also to study particle generation by non-studded winter tyres (friction tyres) and two kinds of winter sanding agents, namely washed crushed stone and unwashed natural sand in combination with both studded and friction tyres.
The results show that pavement wear by studded tyres generates about
40–50 times as much PM10 as that by friction tyres, but also that the ABT pavement generates several times more PM10 than the ABS pavement. The size distribution within PM10 has a maximum around 3–4 µm and more than 95 % of the mass is larger than 1 µm. PM10 is totally dominated by fresh stone material. A fraction of very small particles, with a number concentration peak at around
30–40 nm, was also discovered. Their origin is unknown, but since the number distribution shifted depending on which tyre type was used, a possible origin is the tyres.
In the experiments using sanding material, the unwashed natural sand caused the highest PM10 concentrations. Friction tyres on natural sand caused higher concentrations than studded tyres on washed crushed stone. Studded tyres generated more PM10 than friction tyres but the difference was not as large as when no sanding material was used.
In the cell studies the inflammation potential of the wear particles was compared with PM10 from Hornsgatan in Stockholm and PM10 from a Stockholm subway station. Later on in the project, diesel particles were made available for comparison.
The cell study results show that PM10 from the ABT pavement is at least as inflammatory as diesel particles and more inflammatory than PM10 from the subway. The PM10 from Hornsgatan generally had the highest potential, but PM10 from the ABT pavement was often in parity. This despite the fact that the Hornsgatan PM10 was the only particle sample where endotoxin could be detected. Endotoxin causes an additive effect in studies of inflammation potential. PM10 from the ABS pavement generally had a lower potential than PM10 from the ABT pavement.
To sum up, the project results show that studded tyre wear contributes, in a much higher degree than friction tyres, to ambient air PM10. Apart from tyre type, the formation of PM10 also depends on speed and pavement type. Compared with the particle material in general, wear particles have a comparatively high inflammation potential. The particles' inflammation potential also depends on pavement type. Sanding material consisting of unwashed natural sand causes considerably higher PM10 formation than washed crushed stone, especially in combination with studded tyres.

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Research area

Environment

  • Published: 2005-09-13
  • VTI-code: R520

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Inhalable particles from pavement wear caused by studded tyres – properties and inflammatory effects in human airway cell

Year:
2005
VTI-code:
R521

Authors: John Lindbom , Anders Ljungman , Erik Swietlicki , Andreas Dahl , Anders Gudmundsson , Bertil Rudell , Göran Blomqvist , Mats Gustafsson

High concentrations of inhalable particles (PM10) in ambient air have a proven relation to mortality and different kinds of airway disorders in the population. There are also indications of a connection to cardio vascular diseases. The negative health effects of particles have caused the EU to adopt a directive, which in Sweden has been implemented in environmental quality standards for inhalable particles. These standards are today exceeded in many cities in Sweden, especially in highly trafficked road and street environments in dry periods during winter. In contrast to what might be expected, most of the PM10 do not originate from vehicle exhaust, but from the wear and resuspension of particles from the pavements, tyres and brakes. The most significant source seems to be pavement wear caused by studded tyre use. These facts have resulted in an increasing interest in the properties and effects of wear particles.

The aims of this project have been to describe PM10 from studded tyre wear and to study their inflammatory effects in human airway cells.

The results show that pavement wear by studded tyres generates about 40–50 times as much PM10 as that by friction tyres, but also that the ABT pavement generates several times more PM10 than the ABS pavement. The size distribution within PM10 has a maximum around 3–4 µm and more than 95 % of the mass is larger than 1 µm. PM10 is totally dominated by fresh stone material. A fraction of very small particles, with a number concentration peak at around 30–40 nm, was also discovered. Their origin is unknown, but since the number distribution shifted depending on which tyre type was used, a possible origin is the tyres.

In the experiments using sanding material, the unwashed natural sand caused the highest PM10 concentrations. Friction tyres on natural sand caused higher concentrations than studded tyres on washed crushed stone. Studded tyres generated more PM10 than friction tyres but the difference was not as large as when no sanding material was used.

In the cell studies the inflammation potential of the wear particles was compared with PM10 from Hornsgatan in Stockholm and PM10 from a Stockholm subway station. Later on in the project, diesel particles were made available for comparison.

The cell study results show that PM10 from the ABT pavement is at least as inflammatory as diesel particles and more inflammatory than PM10 from the subway. The PM10 from Hornsgatan generally had the highest potential, but PM10 from the ABT pavement was often in parity. This despite the fact that the Hornsgatan PM10 was the only particle sample where endotoxin could be detected. Endotoxin causes an additive effect in studies of inflammation potential. PM10 from the ABS pavement generally had a lower potential than PM10 from the ABT pavement.

To sum up, the project results show that studded tyre wear contributes, in a much higher degree than friction tyres, to ambient air PM10. Apart from tyre type, the formation of PM10 also depends on speed and pavement type. Compared with the particle material in general, wear particles have a comparatively high inflammation potential. The particles' inflammation potential also depends on pavement type. Sanding material consisting of unwashed natural sand causes considerably higher PM10 formation than washed crushed stone, especially in combination with studded tyres.
The VTI circular road simulator has been used to generate “clean” wear particles from two different pavements; asphalt concrete (ABT) and stone mastic asphalt (ABS), with granite respectively quartzite as the main stone materials. The advantage of using the road simulator is that the contribution from other sources can be minimised.

During the project time, the project was expanded also to study particle generation by non-studded winter tyres (friction tyres) and two kinds of winter sanding agents, namely washed crushed stone and unwashed natural sand in combination with both studded and friction tyres.

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Research area

Environment

  • Published: 2005-09-13
  • VTI-code: R521

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